is a high toxicity clastogen
," Mutation Research, vol.
However, the MN test is a sensitive assay to evaluate genotoxic compounds in fish (Bolognesi et al., 2006), it might suffer variations according to clastogen, test organism, and the life cycle of the cells (Grisolia and Cordeiro, 2000).
MN assay provide evidence of DNA breakage, spindle, or other parts of the mitotic apparatus dysfunction caused by clastogens and aneuploidogenic poisons (Heddle et al., 1991).
mossambicus which was also observed in most of the fish species (Al-Sabti and Metcalfe, 1995), exposure to clastogens, both in the laboratory and in the field (Bombail et al., 2001; Grisolia and Starling, 2001; Rodriguez-Cea et al., 2003) can elevate the frequency of MN.
B(a)P (5 [micro]g/ml) and anti-oxidant NAC (50 [micro]M) were used as a positive control.
According to clastogen and the species studied, the frequency of micronuclei may suffer important variations.
Kikuchi, A Comparison of Diameters of Micronuclei Induced by Clastogens and by Spindle Poisons.
Benzene is a well-known clastogen that requires metabolic activation to be mutagenic.
Micronucleus assay in lymphocytes as a tool to biomonitor human exposure to aneuploidogens and clastogens. Environ Health Perspect 101 (suppl 3):139-143 (1992).
Ethylene oxide is a directly acting alkylating agent that: (i) induces a sensitive, persistent dose-related increase in the frequency of chromosomal aberrations and sister chromatid exchange in peripheral lymphocytes and micronuclei in bone-marrow cells of exposed workers; (ii) has been associated with malignancies of the lymphatic and haematopoietic system in both humans and experimental animals; (iii) induces a dose-related increase in the frequency of haemoglobin adducts in exposed humans and dose-related increases in the numbers of adducts in both DNA and haemoglobin in exposed rodents; (iv) induces gene mutations and heritable translocations in germ cells of exposed rodents; and (v) is a powerful mutagen and clastogen
at all phylogenetic levels.
Relative protection given by extract of Phyllanthus emblica fruit and an equivalent amount of vitamin C against a known clastogen - cesium chloride.
Such experiments with a number of crude vegetable and fruit extracts have demonstrated the anticlastogenic activities of these extracts against known clastogens (Table III).