Burke et al., "Preformed IgG antibodies against major histocompatibility complex class II antigens
are major risk factors for high-grade cellular rejection in recipients of heart transplantation," Circulation, vol.
Sequential analysis of HLA-class II antigen expression in human renal allografts--induction of tubular class II antigens
and correlation with clinical parameters.
Seeking safer alternatives, immunologists have recently focused on HLA class II antigens
and other nonlethal ways of blocking T-cells, but their experiments have yielded only partial success.
Microbead array assays have become the most popular because they provide highthroughput testing with less sample-handling time and can deliver high-resolution typing of HLA class I and class II antigens
. (16) Similar to SSP, many primers are required to obtain high-resolution results.
The second domain, a T cell epitope recognized by allo-[T.sub.FH], is the allo-HLApep presented by the recipient's HLA class II antigens
on the surface of allospecific B cells.
Identification of two independent MHC class II antigens
in a bovine lymphoblastoid cell line.
Other HLA glycoproteins that are not constitutively expressed on most cells, including fetal fibroblasts, are the class II antigens
, HLA-DR, -DQ, and -DP.
These mechanisms, however, do not confer complete protection against allospecific HLA antibodies; LT recipients who develop de novo DSA demonstrate inferior survival, particularly when DSA against HLA class II antigens
[12-14] and IgG3 subclass DSA  are present at high titers.
Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II antigen
is a cell surface glycoprotein involved in the immune recognition of foreign tissue and in the regulation of the immune response.[39,40] Aberrant expression of MHC class II antigens
may indicate altered immune reactions in different types of disease.
HLA epitopes were defined using computer software by searching, in published sequences of class I and class II antigens
, for exclusive amino acids at the same position(s) that are shared by all positive-reacting antigens.