Of the 68 cladogenetic
events, 40 speciation events exhibit a biogeographic shift indicating speciation by dispersal (= 37.5%) or vicariance (= 62.5%) (see Supplementary Materials archive: http://dx.doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.1151584).
Indeed, a strong phylogeographic pattern has been observed and the temporal sequence of cladogenetic
events is in good agreement with the geographic distribution of Dolichopoda studied; this supports the inference that speciation events are strictly allopatric and mostly determined by isolation of different populations in isolated cave systems (Allegrucci et al.
The fossil record, in combination with the phylogeny, yields minimum divergence times for cladogenetic
events, gives some insights into the temporal and geographic origin of species, and presents us with information about the numbers of extinct species and their characters.
These processes all reduce the adaptative possibilities that support cladogenetic
production (the <<hidden guillotine>>), in stark contrast to what happens in the relatively benign tropics.
We observed significantly greater within-group morphometric variance at all three morphological levels in those lineages with decoupling events in their respective cladogenetic