The results of her analysis of 105 clinical trials of antidepressant drugs and 142 studies of psychotherapy indicated that the literature is rife with four types of bias: publication, outcome reporting, spin, and citation bias
in Hepato-biliary Randomized Clinical Trials." Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 55(2002): 407-410.
The researchers excluded articles primarily to reduce potential citation bias
, especially in correspondence and editorials.
Other researchers reported oriented citation bias
for the USA, partially explained by the large cumulative citation number for papers originating from this country (Pasterkamp et al., 2007).
Going one step further, to the network of scientific information, scientific citation bias
(39) is well documented, favoring the citation of studies with "positive" and the most favorable results and avoiding citations of studies with "negative" results.
* When consulting narrative review articles, carefully consider the possibility of citation bias
and whether recommendations are based on patient-oriented and not disease-oriented outcomes.
The impact citation measure includes only articles published during the past eight years, eliminating any citation bias
in favor of long-published journals.