A number of metabolites were identified in the urine, including amino acids such as leucine, alanine, phenylalanine, glycine, and creatine; organic acids such as lactate, acetate, succinate, 2-oxoglutarate, citrate, hippurate, 2-hydroxyvalerate, and cis-aconitate; waste metabolites such as formate, allantoin, dimethylamine, and trimethylamine; and glucose.
In another aspect, the urine samples of the WKN group compared to those of the MS group showed upregulation of N-acetylglutamate, glucose, creatine, hippurate, trigonelline, and formate and downregulation of 2-hydroxyvalerate, leucine, alanine, adipate, glycine, cis-aconitate, and phenylalanine under the rules of [absolute value of [P.sub.corr]] values > 0.63190 (for degree of freedom = 8) and VIP values > 1 (Table 2).
As a consequence of the treatment of WKN, our study detected a high level of glucose and low levels of Krebs cycle products (citrate and cis-aconitate), amino acids (alanine, methionine, glycine, leucine, phenylalanine, glutamate, and proline), 2-hydroxyvalerate, 3-hydroxybutyrate, and glycerol, indicating increased gluconeogenesis and decreased degradation of proteins and lipids with reduced glycolysis.
TABLE 1 Warburg Respiration Measurements (Average of two measurements) Substrates Oxygen Uptake ([micro]L 105 min.) Glucose 190 Fructose 175 Sucrose 155 Glucose + 20 [micro]g ND-497 135 Fructose + 20 [micro]g ND-497 130 Sucrose + 20 [micro]g ND-497 105 Glucose-6-phosphate 47 Glucose-6-phosphate + 20 [micro]g ND-497 18 Glucose-1-phosphate 39 Glucose-1-phosphate + 20 [micro]g ND-497 35 Citrate 75 Citrate + 20 [micro]g ND-497 67 Pyruvate 73 Pyruvate + 20 [micro] ND-497 64 cis-Aconitate
+ 20 [micro]g ND-497 18 [alpha]-Ketoglutarate 33 [alpha]-Ketoglutarate + 20 [micro]g ND-497 28 TABLE 2 Warburg Respiration Measurements (Average of Two Measurements) Antimicrobial Substrate Oxygen Uptake ([micro]L 105 min.) 20 [micro]g.