The axillary artery normally branches off the superior thoracic artery in the first part, the lateral thoracic and thoracoacromial arteries in the second part, and the subscapular, anterior circumflex humeral, and posterior circumflex humeral arteries in the third part (Drake et al, 2015).
In the first case, the medial trunk was a common trunk for the lateral thoracic, subscapular, and posterior circumflex humeral arteries. The intermediate trunk gave off the anterior circumflex humeral artery.
Samta et al reported that the third part of axillary artery gave rise to a common trunk, which branched into subscapular artery, profunda brachii and circumflex humeral arteries
, and also Alar branches arose from the second part of axillary artery.
Branching patterns of the lateral thoracic, subscapular, and posterior circumflex humeral arteries
and their relationship to the posterior cord of the brachial plexus.
Meyer and colleagues (3) studied the arterial supply of six fresh frozen proximal humeri and found that the epiphysis received contributions from both the anterior and posterior circumflex humeral arteries
. The anterior circumflex artery, arising from the axillary artery, courses laterally under the tendon of the long head of the biceps and terminates with smaller branches in the greater tuberosity.
The branches of the artery are superior thoracic (from the 1st part); thoraco-acromial and lateral thoracic (from 2nd part) and subscapular and anterior and posterior circumflex humeral arteries
from the third part.
Conventionally, the proximal part (first part) gives superior thoracic artery, the posterior part (second part) gives thoraco-acromial and lateral thoracic arteries and distal part (third part) gives subscapular artery, anterior and posterior circumflex humeral arteries
(Standring et al., 2005).
The blood supply of the proximal humerus is provided mainly by the circumflex humeral arteries
, which branch off the axillary artery.
The third part of the artery gives subscapular artery, anterior circumflex humeral and posterior circumflex humeral arteries
. There is an extensive collateral circulation associated with the branches of subclavian and axillary arteries, particularly around the scapula.
The third part of the axillary artery has three branches which are named the subscapular, the anterior circumflex humeral and the posterior circumflex humeral arteries
. The subscapular artery is the largest branch of the axillary artery which ends as the circumflex scapular and thoracodorsal arteries (Moore).
The anterior and posterior circumflex humeral arteries
arose from axillary artery II.
The lateral branch gave (I) common humeral circumflex artery, which divided into anterior and posterior circumflex humeral arteries
, the latter continued as the profunda brachii artery in the radial groove, along with the radial nerve (II).