This procedure assumed that three marker trajectories lay on three concentric spheres, as the CM[C.sub.1] joint dominated thumb circumduction and the participants were instructed to inhibit the movement of the MC[P.sub.1] and I[P.sub.1] joints as much as possible.
in which ([x'.sub.c], [y'.sub.c], [x'.sub.c]) are the local coordinates of the cocenter of three spheres, considered as the CM[C.sub.1] joint center and the center of rotation for thumb circumduction; [r.sub.i], (i = 1, 2, 3) are the radii of the MC[P.sub.1], I[P.sub.1], and D[P.sub.1] spheres, respectively; and ([x'.sub.i](t), [y'.sub.i](t), [z'.sub.i](t)) are the respective time-varying marker coordinates in the local coordinate system (X'-Y'-Z').
We performed regression analyses to examine the effects of anthropometry, gender, and circumduction direction on the following four groups of 18 dependent measures: Group 1, the CM[C.sub.1] joint center coordinates ([x'.sub.c], [y'.sub.c], [z'.sub.c]); Group 2, the reference axis orientation [alpha] and [delta] angles; Group 3, the minimum and maximum values of the [theta] angles; and Group 4, the cone volumes.
in which Y represents a dependent measure; x, through [x.sub.4] represent, respectively, the repetition (Trial 1 or 2), gender (male = 1 or female = -1), direction of circumduction (CCW = 1 or CW = -1), and an anthropometric predictor.
Statistical summaries of the 18 measures derived to describe the thumb circumduction kinematics and ROM, presented in Tables 2 and 3, where they are stratified by gender and by direction of circumduction, respectively.
However, removing the requirement for finger counting can reduce this to a smaller number, particularly if external interaction is permitted, such as a common feature for thumb circumduction axis to be passive and changed by the user, as is the case with the TBM, iLimb, and Bebionic hands.
Quantifying thumb rotation during circumduction utilizing a video technique.
Figure 3 shows that this patient is having more difficulty with shoulder abduction to 90[degrees] with elbow extended, wrist flexion/extension with elbow extended, and wrist circumduction
. Reasonable long-term goals would be directed at functional activities involving more extreme reach and the coordinated use of multiple joints, such as dressing (fastening and adjusting clothing and shoes), home management (yard/garden work), and shopping (selecting and purchasing items).
The projection of the thigh angle in the coronal plane depicted thigh motion toward or away from the body and was used as an approximation of circumduction (definition adapted from Kerrigan et al.
All subjects compensated for the loss of knee flexion during swing phase through hip hiking (increased pelvic obliquity), and three subjects additionally used circumduction (increased orthotic-side coronal plane thigh angle during swing phase) to create adequate swing-phase toe clearance.
In this study, we hypothesized that the auto-mode oxygen cost would be significantly lower than the locked mode, but despite significant reduction in compensatory mechanisms such as hip hiking and circumduction, no significant difference was noted between auto- and locked-mode oxygen cost.