whether their actions harm others, whereas parents and circumcisers
There is no compulsory fee for circumcision in Israel when performed by a state-certified "mohel" or circumciser
. But it is customary for parents of newborn Jewish boys to offer a gratuity up to 1,000 shekels ($255), an amount recommended by the chief rabbinic council.
 Traditional circumcisers
performed the highest proportion of FGM/C among female teachers in this study, similar to reports from most countries where it is performed,  but lower than the national average of 80% involvement of traditional circumcisers
Moreover, the establishment of local anti-FGM committees in each community in Eritrea which engage local law enforcement officials in raising awareness of FGM among families, and in monitoring against the law's violation and in reporting to law enforcement officials when FGM occurs have been effective in preventing FGM, with these efforts resulting in charges and convictions against 54 circumcisers
and parents in 2011 and in 2012, convictions and fines of 155 perpetrators in Eritrea (25,26,27).
The Brit Yosef Yitzchak organization has 5000 circumcisers
and has performed about 62,000 brit ceremonies around the world so far.
"But, then, the ambassador immediately followed it up by saying that the government was approached by the circumcisers
in those villages, who asked: 'Now, what happens to us?' But the ambassador said the government was totally committed to continuing the work against FGM."
, they enact a violence on the body that outside of the ritual context would be entirely wicked, nearly incomprehensible.
(63) In this sense, genital modification or improvement, achieved through the specialized skills of traditional circumcisers
, becomes a necessity to correct this culturally affirmed anomaly.
(ii) Unless the community leaders devise a mechanism to restrict female circumcisers
to stick to the permissible degree of Sunnah, the whole exercise, including the permissible type, assumes the rule of prohibition in light of the following Islamic law principles and maxims:
During pre-colonial times, healing was part of the economic, political and religious belief systems of the inhabitant's, ranging from persons of wisdom, diviners, rainmakers, circumcisers
As parts of the qualitative segment, fourteen women considered to be specialists in FGC--traditional circumcisers
, traditional birth attendants, nurses and midwives were also interviewed indepth.
The majority of the girls who had undergone FGC (62.3%) had been circumcised by traditional circumcisers
, with health workers (24, 22.6%) and close relatives (16, 15.1%) accounting for only small proportions (Fig.