Even more, they demonstrated markers such as tight junction including ZO-1, E-cadherin, and cingulin
, which indicated that a protective ultrastructure barrier has formed and could probably protect the engineered bladder tissues from urine [15, 32].
The tight junction scaffolding protein cingulin
regulates neural crest cell migration.
Likely, VEGF administration to human brain endothelial cells increases permeability of the monolayer and downregulates claudin-5 and occludin, but not junctional adhesion molecule-1 (JAM-1), cingulin
, peripheral plasma membrane protein (CASK), or ZO-1 .
Transmembrane proteins (such as occludin, tricellulin, claudins, and junctional adhesion molecule) interact with cytoplasmic peripheral membrane proteins (such as ZO-1, ZO-2, ZO-3, and cingulin
) that constitute the frames of tight junctions .
The TJ-associated membrane proteins comprise occludin, tricellulin (also called marvelD2), cingulin
, claudins (CL-1, CL-3, CL-5), junction-associated molecules of the immunoglobulin superfamily (JAMs), zona occludens proteins (ZO-1, ZO-2, ZO-3), 7H6, and AF-6 [7, 31, 32].
TJ proteins identified include transmembrane proteins; occludin and claudin, and cytoplasmic plaque proteins; ZO-1, ZO-2, ZO-3, cingulin
, and 7H6.