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limping or lameness.
intermittent claudication see intermittent claudication.
jaw claudication a complex of symptoms like those of intermittent claudication but seen in the muscles of mastication, occurring in giant cell arteritis.
venous claudication intermittent claudication caused by venous stasis.


marked by alternating periods of activity and inactivity.
intermittent claudication a group of symptoms characterized by pain, cramping, and weakness in the calf muscles of one or both lower limbs, brought on by walking and relieved by resting for a few minutes. It is a form of arterial occlusive disease and is caused by atherosclerotic lesions of the limbs, which diminish blood supply to the muscles of the lower leg. Called also angina cruris.

Treatment has traditionally involved vascular reconstructive surgery to bypass the diseased portion of the vessel. Modification of risk factors has also proved beneficial, such as smoking cessation, weight loss, and introduction of a graduated program of walking and exercise.
intermittent explosive disorder a rare impulse control disorder in which a periodic loss of control of aggressive impulses results in serious assault or destruction of property; the outbursts are totally out of proportion to any apparent stress.
intermittent positive pressure breathing (IPPB) a form of respiratory therapy using a ventilator for the treatment of selected patients with atelectasis, those needing occasional assistance breathing, or those requiring some types of aerosol medications. As the name implies, this involves application of pressure only during the inspiratory phase, in order to help the patient breathe more deeply. It is used when other less expensive, less invasive forms of respiratory care have not been effective. Called also intermittent positive pressure ventilation.

Because of their compact size and capability of operating independently of an electrical current, IPPB machines are used widely. Similar treatment can also be delivered with a volume-, pressure-, or time-limited ventilator or manual resuscitation device. The American Association for Respiratory Care has published detailed and comprehensive clinical practice guidelines for the use of intermittent positive pressure breathing, which are available online at
Miller-Keane Encyclopedia and Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing, and Allied Health, Seventh Edition. © 2003 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. All rights reserved.



Pharmacologic class: Quinolone derivative

Therapeutic class: Antiplatelet agent

Pregnancy risk category C


Unclear. Thought to inhibit phosphodiesterase III by increasing cyclic adenosine monophosphate in platelets and blood vessels, causing vasodilation and enhancing cardiac contractility and coronary blood flow.


Tablets: 50 mg, 100 mg

Indications and dosages

Intermittent claudication

Adults: 100 mg P.O. b.i.d. at least 30 minutes before or 2 hours after breakfast and dinner

Dosage adjustment

• Concurrent use of diltiazem, erythromycin, itraconazole, ketoconazole, or omeprazole


• Hypersensitivity to drug

• Heart failure


Use cautiously in:

• cardiovascular disorders

• patients receiving other antiplatelet agents concurrently

• pregnant or breastfeeding patients

• children (safety and efficacy not established).


• Give with water 30 minutes before or 2 hours after patient consumes food or milk.

• Don't give with grapefruit juice.

• Be aware that although response may occur within 2 to 3 weeks, patient should continue therapy for up to 12 weeks or as prescribed.

Adverse reactions

CNS: dizziness, headache, vertigo

CV: tachycardia

GI: abdominal pain, abnormal stools, dyspepsia, flatulence

EENT: rhinitis, pharyngitis

Musculoskeletal: back pain, myalgia

Respiratory: increased cough

Other: infection


Drug-drug. CYP3A4 and CYP2C19 inhibitors, diltiazem, erythromycin, macrolides, omeprazole: increased cilostazol blood level

Drug-food. Grapefruit juice, high-fat meals: increased cilostazol blood level

Drug-behaviors. Smoking: decreased exposure to cilostazol

Patient monitoring

• Monitor cardiovascular status.

• Closely monitor patient if he's receiving other antiplatelet drugs.

Patient teaching

• Instruct patient to take drug with full glass of water, 30 minutes before or 2 hours after food or milk.

• Advise patient to report nausea, vomiting, or abdominal pain.

• Instruct patient not to smoke, because smoking impedes drug effects.

• As appropriate, review all other significant adverse reactions and interactions, especially those related to the drugs, foods, and behaviors mentioned above.

McGraw-Hill Nurse's Drug Handbook, 7th Ed. Copyright © 2013 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved


Pletal® Cardiology An antiplatelet vasodilator used to manage intermittent claudication due to peripheral vascular disease by ↑ blood flow to affected limbs, per improved ankle/brachial index Contraindications CHF
McGraw-Hill Concise Dictionary of Modern Medicine. © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.


An antithrombotic and vasodilator drug used to improve blood supply to the extremities in people with peripheral vascular disease and INTERMITTENT CLAUDICATION. A brand name is Pletal.
Collins Dictionary of Medicine © Robert M. Youngson 2004, 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
John's wort + extracts + substrates of P-gp ticlopidine, (phenotyping study) cilostazol, [34-36] clopidogrel, voriconazole, or raltegravir [77-81] St.
A meta-analysis of Cilostazol versus placebo in atherothrombotic diseases including cardiovascular, cerebrovascular or peripheral artery disease showed that Cilostazol was associated with significant reduction (14%) in occurrence of all atherothrombotic events.
In the study, 2757 patients who had already suffered a stroke were split into two roughly equal groups - one of which was given aspirin and the other cilostazol for as long as five years.
Randomized comparison of adjunctive cilostazol versus high maintenance dose clopidogrel in patients with high post-treatment platelet reactivity: results of the ACCEL-RESISTANCE (Adjunctive Cilostazol Versus High Maintenance Dose Clopidogrel in Patients With Clopidogrel Resistance) randomized study.
Cilostazol: treatment of intermittent claudication.
Methods: 165 non cardioembolic ischemic stroke patients with >50% stenosis in the responsible intracranial artery after 2 weeks to 6 months from the onset were randomly allocated to receive either cilostazol 200 mg/day plus aspirin 100 mg/day (n = 83, CA group) or aspirin 100 mg/day alone (n = 82, A group).
Medications such as cholesterol-lowering statins and cilostazol (a vasodilator that helps improves blood flow in narrowed arteries) can also be helpful in more serious cases.
Recently, we demonstrated that cilostazol increases the expression of genes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis, including NRF1, PGC-1[alpha], and TFAM via upregulating the production and activity of HO-1 in a human hepatoma cell line (HepG2) [11].
Cellular mechanism underlying hypothermia-induced ventricular tachycardia/ventricular fibrillation in the setting of early repolarization and the protective effect of quinidine, cilostazol, and milrinone.
Pharmacodynamic interaction studies of Ginkgo biioba with cilostazol and clopidogrel in healthy human subjects.
The participants were assigned to home walking plus the drug cilostazol (Pletal) or the same approach plus either supervised exercise or stent placement.