Brevetoxins, like ciguatoxins
, are potent ichthyotoxic neurotoxins that accumulate in fish.
and brevetoxins, neurotoxic polyether compounds active on sodium channels.
Herbivorous fish, feeding on the reef vegetation where Gambierdiscus is epiphytic, accumulate ciguatoxin
precursors in their tissues.
Longer-term challenges of fish consignment restrictions include the changing regional risk profile of ciguatera resulting from climatic, oceanographic or other environmental impacts on coral reef health (Dickey and Plakas 2010) and the increasing toxic potential of smaller specimens of restricted trade species, or smaller fish more generally, because of increased harmful algal bloom events (Lechuga-Deveze and Sierra-Beltran 1995) and consequent ciguatoxin
prevalence within the marine ecosystems (Dickey and Plakas 2010).
The causative toxins of its clinical manifestations are ciguatoxins
Under the CRADA, IGEN develops ORIGEN-based tests for toxins such as ciguatoxin
, brevetoxins, botulinum neurotoxins, and staphylococcal enterotoxins.
Key words: blood, brevetoxin, ciguatoxin
, HDL, lipoprotein, plasma.
This potentially serious condition is caused by consumption of heat-stable ciguatoxin
concentrated in the tissues of certain types of reef fish that have ingested toxin-producing plankton.
Binding of brevetexins end ciguatoxin
to the voltage-sensitive sodium channel and conformational analysis of brevetoxin B.
[the toxin of ciguatera] or saxitoxin [the toxin of paralytic shellfish poisoning]), and cyanobacterial toxins (e.
Hyperkinetic twitching and spinal curvature are commonly observed symptoms resulting from exposure to a voltage-gated sodium channel activator such as brevetoxin or ciguatoxin
in medaka embryos (Edmunds et al.
2 nM; n = 10] and recognizes both type 1 and type 2 brevetoxins, but not ciguatoxin