No deep-sea fish (e.g., tuna, dolphin, or wahoo) have been found to carry ciguatoxin
Strategy for the development of antibodies raised against ciguatoxins
. Ninth International Conference on Harmful Algal Blooms, 7-11 Febuary 2000, Tasmania, Australia (in press).
The effect levels are also 1,000 times lower than those we observe for the related toxin ciguatoxin
Abbreviations: APC: apical pore complex; BI: Bayesian inference; BS: Bootstrap support; BSA: Bovine serum albumin; BSE: Back scatter electron; CFP: Ciguatera fish poisoning; CTXs: Ciguatoxins
; DNA: Deoxyribonucleic acid; LC-MS/MS: Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry; LSU rDNA: Large subunit ribosomal DNA; ML: Maximum likelihood; MTXs: Maitotoxins; PCR: Polymerase chain reaction; Po: outer pore plate; PP: Posterior probability; SE: Secondary electron; SEM: Scanning electron microscopy; SSU rDNA: Small subunit ribosomal DNA
are one of the many naturally occurring biotoxins associated with harmful algal blooms (HABs).
Detection of ciguatoxin
in the meal remnants is strongly suggestive of CFP but is not required for case confirmation.
(2) Gambiertoxins are produced by dinoflagellates of the genus Gambierdiscus and are converted into ciguatoxins
during trophic transfer in herbivorous and, later, carnivorous fish.
bioaccumulates up the food chain as herbivorous fish eat the algae and are themselves eaten by carnivorous fish.
Simplified solid-phase membrane immunobead assay (MIA) with monoclonal anti-ciguatoxin antibody (MAb-CTX) for detection of ciguatoxin
and related polyether toxins.
Sint Maarten and other northeast Caribbean islands have discovered high levels of ciguatoxin
, in their lionfish populations.
The chemical structure of YTX is closely related to other ladder-shaped polyethers like ciguatoxin
(CTXs), maitotoxin, brevetoxins (PbTXs), and some diarrhetic shellfish toxins (DSTs).
argus never developed because it turned out to be a carrier of ciguatoxin
, the agent of ciguatera fish poisoning (Dierking and Campora, 2009).