FPCC can produce a firmer cheese structure as already reported [23-25] also for Crescenza cheese and is probably related to its lower general proteolytic activity than calf chymosin
 and to the presence of pepsin in calf rennet.
Firstly, casein micelles are degraded by using chymosin
enzyme and afterwards degraded casein micelles automatically come together in the second step, according to the von Smoluchowsky model [7, 8].
According to the WCDR, there are four types of rennet: calf rennet, microbial rennet, fermentation-produced chymosin
, and vegetable coagulants.
Rennet, in the form of pure chymosin
, is also manufactured using genetically modified microbes such as the fungus Aspergillus niger.
No GE-produced animals are yet approved for human consumption, although cheeses may contain chymosin
, and dairy products may have been produced from milk containing GE-BST.
Crystallographic studies at CARB were then focused on protein engineering efforts that included among others chymosin
, subtilisin BPN'.
It also excludes the genetic engineered enzyme used in cheese production -- chymosin
. That product, which replaces the rennet from slaughtered calves' stomachs, is widely used in cheese production in several EU countries.
Likewise, the biotech-created enzyme Chymosin
is used in cheesemaking with positive results.
Efforts have been focused on food crops (corn, soybeans and canola), animal feeds (corn), industrial crops (cotton), vaccines and hormones for animals (rBST), fish (salmon), trees (spruce), microbes and active food ingredients (chymosin
Anti-caking agents (E570-573); caramel colouring (E150); carbon black (E153); corn syrup, glucose syrup, dextrose, fructose emulsifiers (E471- 479b); enzymes (chymosin
); flavour enhancers (E620-625); lecithin (E322); maltodextrin; monosodium glutamate (E621); starch and modified starch; tocopherols (E306-309); tomato paste and puree; unspecified vegetable oils and fats and margarine; unspecified vegetable protein extracts; vitamin B2, riboflavin (E101, E101a); yeast; and xanthan gum (E415).