* Heart rate response to exercise (measured by chronotropic
In addition, it is now known that although acute caffeine consumption has a positive chronotropic
and inotropic effect, this effect is attenuated with chronic consumption.
A negative chronotropic
effect was profoundly exhibited by dexmedetomidine approximately 30-35 mins after starting bolus infusion, after which the heart rate remained stable in the range of 56-70/min in both the groups.
The study further confirmed that all exercise variables included in estimating physiological age were powerful predictors of survival, including exercise capacity, chronotropic
competence (heart rate response to exercise) and heart rate recovery.
The temporary pacemaker was placed in the patient's heart owing to hemodynamic instability Anamnesis obtained from the patient did not include a history of any cardiac event and negative chronotropic
The study showed that poor sleepers had significantly more frequent hypertensive response to exercise, chronotropic
incompetence and reduced HRR at the 1st and 3rd min of peak exercise as compared to those with good sleep quality.
The negative and positive chronotropic
effects have been described using different exogenous NO donors.
and vasodilator reserves limit exercise capacity in patients with heart failure and a preserved ejection fraction.
Positive inotropic and negative chronotropic
effects of proton pump inhibitors in isolated rat atrium.
The effect of Egyptian cobra (Naja haje) on BP and chronotropic
response of the heart might be dose dependent as reported in a study based on an experiment conducted on rats (10).
In the setting of RA, it has been postulated that NSBB could produce further derangements on hemodynamics and decrease cardiac chronotropic