chronic renal failure


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chronic renal failure

A spectrum of severe renal diseases ranging from non-dialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease in patients don’t require renal replacement therapy (i.e., dialysis or renal transplant), to those with end-stage kidney disease who do.

Aetiology
Diabetes, hypertension, glomerulonephritis.

Clinical findings, external
Dehydration, oedema, anaemia, sallow colour, pruritis, brown discolouration of nails, bruising (abnormal platelets); other findings may include cutaneous vasculitic lesions, diabetes, peripheral vascular disease, spina bifida or other causes of neurogenic bladder.

Clinical findings, internal
Hypertension, heart failure, pulmonary oedema, pleural effusions, pericardial effusion, GI bleeding due to peptic ulceration, gastritis/oesophagitis/colitis, acute pancreatitis.

Cause of death, chronic renal failure
Uraemia:
• Convulsions;
• Coma;
• Cardiac myocyte dysfunction;
• Congestive heart failure;
• Pericarditis;
• Pericardial effusion;
• Arrhythmias;
• Tamponade;
• Left ventricular hypertrophy;
• Coronary artery disease.
Tumours:
• Renal cell carcinoma;
• Lymphomas;
• Hepatocellular carcinoma;
• Thyroid carcinoma.

chronic renal failure

Chronic kidney failure Nephrology A slow decline in renal function, which may be 2º to chronic HTN, DM, CHF, SLE, or sickle cell anemia and, if extreme, leads to ESRD, mandating kidney dialysis; an abrupt decline in renal function may be triggered by acute intercurrent processes–eg, sepsis, shock, trauma, kidney stones, kidney infection, drugs–aspirin or lithium, toxins, abuse substances, or injection of iodinated radiocontrast Lab Fluid retention, uremia Management Low-protein diet to conserve renal function; transplantation if ESRD
References in periodicals archive ?
Hemolysis in chronic renal failure. Semin Nephrol 1985;5:133-9.
(1991), Acral necrosis in a patient with chronic renal failure. Calciphylaxis.
Established cases of chronic renal failure patients and conservative treatment or going for haemodialysis with hypertension 22 cases.
Group I had 30 patients with anemia due to chronic renal failure while group II consisted of 30 healthy control subjects.
The incidence of chronic renal failure (CRF) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is rising constantly because the repair of the damaged parenchymal tis- sues is rare.1 Chronic renal failure is a progressive disease caused by the damage of the functional unit of the kidney the nephron.
Conclusion Chronic renal failure is associated with complex array of cutaneous manifestations caused either by disease or treatment.
Chronic kidney disease (CKD), or chronic renal failure, is defined as a gradual loss of kidney function.
The man was also suffering from chronic renal failure and was undergoing treatment at the ICU at King Fahd Hospital.
Persistent hypertension is one of the risk factors for strokes, heart attacks, heart failure and arterial aneurysm and also a leading source of chronic renal failure.
There is a 40% increase in the incidence of diabetes mellitus and hypertension which are one of the leading causes of chronic renal failure. There is an urgent need for early detection through blood and urine tests, and kidneys ultrasound.
KEY WORDS: Arteriovenous fistula, AVF, Primary failure, Patency, Chronic renal failure.
As damage to the nephrons continues, pre-renal azotemia, a normally reversible condition, can progress to chronic renal failure. Clinical signs of pre-renal azotemia include edema, thirst, oliguria, symptoms of heart failure, dry mucous membranes, orthostatic hypotension, and rapid pulse.

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