Amoxicillin and metronidazole as an adjunct to full mouth scaling and root planing of chronic periodontitis
. J Periodontol 2009; 80: 364-371.
Antimicrobial periodontal treatment decreases serum C-reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, but not adiponectin levels in patients with chronic periodontitis
Moreover, the VDR genotypes based on haplotype analysis may be associated with chronic periodontitis
. In the future, diagnostic periodontal risk assessments like polymorphisms may be useful in detection of individuals susceptible for periodontitis.
may affect one or several periodontal sites within the mouth, leading to different levels of tissue destruction (7); this is preceded by gingivitis (8) and is often demonstrated by measuring periodontal ligament clinical attachment loss (CAL).
All of the patients with CP fulfilled the diagnostic criteria according to their CAL levels as defined by the International Workshop for a Classification of Periodontal Diseases and Conditions for Chronic Periodontitis
: (18) Among these patients, [greater than or equal to] 30% of the teeth were affected (generalized CP) and their PD was [greater than or equal to] 4 mm.
Line, "Interleukin 10 gene promoter polymorphisms are associated with chronic periodontitis
," Journal of Clinical Periodontology, vol.
Type 2 Diabetes have been recognized to be an independent risk factor for chronic periodontitis
, the risk increased to 3 folds in diabetics as compared to non-diabetics.4 It is said that cytokines which are secreted as a result of bacterial gingivitis may enhance insulin resistance which may cause or exacerbate diabetes.
Humanperiodontal ligament fibroblast responses to compression in chronic periodontitis
. J Clin Periodontol; 2013.40(7): 661-671.
Interestingly, GHRL levels in GCF from patients with chronic periodontitis
were lower than those from healthy individuals.
Neutrophil proteinase 3 is a multifunctional serine proteinase mainly located on the cell surface and in the azurophilic granules of neutrophils which are the predominant cell type in the periodontal pocket of chronic periodontitis
and represent the first line of defense against infection.
The tobacco being currently used in naswar contains trace amounts of arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, lead, nickel, nitrate, nitrite and tobacco specific nitrosamines (TSNAs).1 Along with these substances, addictive nicotine is also found in naswar.3 The main characteristics of chronic periodontitis
are periodontal attachment loss, connective tissue degradation and resorption of alveolar bone.
Porphyromonas gingivalis, a gram-negative anaerobic bacterium that secretes a toxic enzyme called gingipain, has been identified as the main culprit behind a range of periodontal problems, from mild gingivitis (which causes reversible inflammation) to chronic periodontitis
(which can destroy bone and lead to tooth loss).