Exceptional chromosomal mutations
in a rodent population are not strongly underdominant.
The dominant mechanisms of fluoroquinolone resistance identified are 1) chromosomal mutations
causing reduced affinity of DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV for fluoroquinolones and 2) overexpression of endogenous MDR pumps.
gonorrhoeae were resistant to penicillin G (MIC [is greater than or equal to] 2 mg/L) and tetracycline (MIC 2 [is greater than or equal to] mg/L and [is less than] 16 mg/L), respectively, by chromosomal mutation
. In contrast, the percentage of strains with plasmid-mediated resistance to penicillins and tetracycline has remained stable at approximately 15% since 1994.
The extensive use of colistin in veterinary medicine to treat gastrointestinal infections caused by Enterobacteriaceae has contributed to chromosomal mutations
mediated by the plasmid mcr-1 to codify resistance to colistin in Gram-negative bacilli.
Resistance phenotypes have been more thoroughly investigated in Escherichia coli and linked to chromosomal mutations
in the target (murA) or transporter (glpT and uhpT) genes or less frequently to plasmid-mediated fosfomycin resistance genes (fosA, fosB, fosC) encoding glutathione S-transferases that inactivate the drug (4).
"Because different forms of cancer are associated with different chromosomal mutations
, we believe analysis of exosome DNA taken from blood samples may not only help determine the presence of a cancerous tumor somewhere in the body, but identify mutations without a need for tumor sample.
In addition to the acquired resistances caused by chromosomal mutations
Kalluri added that because different forms of cancer are associated with different chromosomal mutations
, they believe analysis of exosome DNA taken from blood samples may not only help determine the presence of a cancerous tumour somewhere in the body but also identify mutations without a need for tumour sample.
The PrenaTest is being further developed "to identify other chromosomal mutations
such as Trisomy 13 and 18," said Dr.
During vertical evolution, microbes develop advantageous chromosomal mutations
that they pass on to their progeny.
pallidum chromosomal mutations
associated with azithromycin resistance and treatment failures have been documented in several areas in the United States."
However, there is less direct evidence that illustrates chromosomal mutations
of asbestos fibers in various organs and tissues in intact organisms.