chromosomal aberration


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Related to chromosomal aberration: aneuploidy, gene mutation

chromosomal aberration

[-sō′məl]
Etymology: Gk, chroma + soma, body; L, aberrare, to wander
any change in the structure or number of any of the chromosomes of a given species. In humans, a number of physical disabilities and disorders are directly associated with aberrations of both the autosomes and the sex chromosomes, including Down, Turner's, and Klinefelter's syndromes. The incidence of most chromosomal disorders is significantly higher than that of single-gene disorders. See also trisomy.

chromosomal aberration

An abnormality in chromosomes regarding number (aneuploidy, polyploidy) or chromosomal material (translocation, deletion, duplication).
See also: aberration

chromosomal

emanating from or pertaining to chromosome.

chromosomal aberration
see chromosomal abnormality (below).
chromosomal abnormality
abnormal karyotype; abnormalities can be detected before birth by means of amniocentesis, or after birth, but many are probably never observed because they cause death and disposal of the fetus. The abnormalities are either of number, or of composition of the individual chromosomes. Monosomy and trisomy are examples of numerical abnormalities. Translocations are examples of abnormalities of structure where parts of one chromosome have been transferred to another. The cause of these abnormalities is not known. Their importance is that many of them are linked with structural or functional defects of the animal body. The best known ones in veterinary medicine are those that are related to infertility, e.g. translocation 1/29, translocation 27/29.
chromosomal analysis
fetal cells obtained by amniocentesis or lymphocytes from a blood sample can be cultured in the laboratory until they divide. Cell division is arrested in mid-metaphase by the drug Colcemid, a derivative of colchicine. The chromosomes can be stained by one of several techniques that produce a distinct pattern of light and dark bands along the chromosomes, and each chromosome can be recognized by its size and banding pattern. The chromosomal characteristics of an animal are referred to as its karyotype. This also refers to a photomicrograph of a cell nucleus that is cut apart and rearranged so that the individual chromosomes are in order and labeled. The autosomes are numbered roughly in order of decreasing length. The sex chromosomes are labeled X and Y. Karyotyping is useful in determining the presence of chromosome defects.
chromosomal banding
see banding (2).
chromosomal chimerism
see chimera.
chromosomal crossover
chromosomal deletion
in genetics, loss from a chromosome of genetic material.
chromosomal inversion
see inversion (2).
chromosomal linkage
see linkage (2).
chromosomal mapping
see genetic map.
chromosomal non-disjunction
failure of the chromatids or chromosomes to separate (disjoin) during meiosis.
chromosomal replication
chromosomal walking
a technique for identification and isolation of contiguous sequences of genomic DNA.
chromosomal X inactivation
only one of a pair of female (X) chromosomes in the one cell is active, the other is inactivated.
References in periodicals archive ?
Twenty-eight gastrointestinal anomalies were described in fetuses that had either multiple other anomalies (15 findings, 54%) or chromosomal aberrations (13 findings, 46%).
12] Chromosomal aberrations were observed in human dental pulp cells with zinc oxide formulations intended for dental fillings.
UV-B radiation caused chromosomal aberrations and induced abnormal microtubule arrays, including an asymmetric PPB, asymmetric spindle, and defective phragmoplast.
Table 1: Summary of some landmark genotoxicity studies in fish using chromosomal aberration test: a review.
The representatives of dimethoate induced chromosomal aberrations such as break, lag chromosome, stick chromosome, and multipolar anaphase analyzed in Allium sativum root tip cells are shown (Figure 1).
Most of these published transformation methods involve a period of in vitro culture, but only limited data are available on chromosomal aberrations in transgenic plants, except for tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.
Chromosomal aberration tests on 29 chemicals combined with S9 mix in vitro.
The genotoxic activity of Pb stress also showed chromosomal aberration which concomitantly occurred with MN.
2) derivative chromosomes, supports the view that identical cytogenetic changes in multiple leiomyomas from the same patient may represent recurrent chromosomal aberrations in smooth muscles or they may be coincidental.
However, the frequency of chromosomal aberration decreases correspondingly with increase in concentrations of PCS II and PCS III.
Several other pesticidal chemicals, which have been demonstrated to induce chromosomal aberration and micronucleus formation in Allium root meristem cells, are also found to produce similar effect in mammals.
The frequency and types of chromosomal aberration were determined by examining about 1000 dividing cells fro m 10 root tips per treatment.