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Chromogranins, including chromogranin A (CgA), are members of the granin family of neuroendocrine secretory proteins located in the secretory vesicles of neurons and endocrine cells.
In addition to the primary function chromogranins in granulogenesis of vesicle formation, CgA is the precursor for many functional peptides such as vasostatin, pancreastatin, catestatin, parastatin, serpenin, and other peptides that have many physiological functions (including autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine) in the corresponding neuroendocrine physiology.
Chromogranins are excellent indicatives of neuroendocrine differentiation.
Immunohistochemistry for Chromogranin was diffusely positive with punctate cytoplasmic positivity.
Immunohistochemically, the tumour cells were negative for PSA and positive for chromogranins (Fig.
In this case, immunostains for PSAS, prostate-specific acid phosphatase, cytokeratin 7, cytokeratin 20 were negative, while those for chromogranin and synaptophysin were strongly positive - these factors helped in the diagnosis.
Chromogranins are matrical proteins that are associated with neurosecretory granules and as such they are absolutely specific for NE differentiation (20).
With the hypothesis that histidine decarboxylase (HDC) and its mechanism of releasing and regulating biogenic amines and peptides, may outline a significant link between NE differentiation of any malignancy, we studied the immunohistochemical expression of this marker, along with chromogranin A (CgA), in various subtypes of PNECs.
Staining was positive for pan-cytokeratin and negative for chromogranins, nonspecific esterase, synaptophysin, and S-100, supporting the diagnosis.
The World Health Organization's (WHO) definition of neuroendocrine tumours is 'morphofunctional' and is primarily based on microscopic characteristics, but incorporates immunohistological data (with such markers as the chromogranins, synaptophysin and non-specific enolase), special stains (e.
The results of a biopsy taken at that time the nasal mucosa was positive for HMB-45 and melan-A (figure 1, A and B) and negative for S-100, pan-cytokeratin, synaptophysin, chromogranins, and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) immunoperoxidase--were consistent with malignant melanoma.
Human chromogranin A (CgA), a member of the granin family, is an acidic 439-amino acid protein with a widespread expression in endocrine cells and neurons (1-3).