Zika/associated birth defects include selected congenital brain anomalies (intracranial calcifications; cerebral atrophy; abnormal cortical formation; corpus callosum abnormalities; cerebellar abnormalities; porencephaly; hydranencephaly; ventriculomegaly/hydrocephaly); selected congenital eye anomalies (microphthalmia or anophthalmia; coloboma; cataract; intraocular calcifications; chorioretinal
anomalies involving the macula, excluding retinopathy of prematurity; and optic nerve atrophy, pallor, and other optic nerve abnormalities); and/or microcephaly at birth (birth head circumference <3rd percentile for infant sex and gestational age based on INTERGROWTH/21st online percentile calculator [http://intergrowth21.ndog.ox.ac.uk/]).
Pathological changes in subfoveal chorioretinal
area can be the one reason.
retinal venous occlusive disease, the epiretinal membrane and vitreomacular traction, infectious chorioretinal
inflammatory conditions, and posterior segment complications of anterior segment surgery.
At age 5, she was assessed by an ophthalmologist and diagnosed with bilateral chorioretinal
coloboma, left iris coloboma, left cataract, left sensory exotropia, and left microphthalmos.
Acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy (APMPEE) is a chorioretinal
inflammatory disease of unknown origin.
lesions have been reported in infected pigs .
Patient III7, who originally presented with phenotype 1, developed after 9 years a large central area of pronounced chorioretinal
atrophy in both eyes, with yellow-white dots distributed at the posterior pole and midperiphery.
West Nile virus infection typically causes multifocal chorioretinal
lesions that occur in linear streaks following the course of retinal nerve fibers [39, 40].
Chorioretinitis and chorioretinal
scars were observed in 89%-100% of infected children, and hydrocephalus (mostly triventricular dilation) in 96% (2,10,12,13).
Comprehensive multispecialty medical and developmental follow-up documented that 10 of 13 infants had dysphagia, 7 had epilepsy, 3 had chorioretinal
abnormalities, all 13 had hypertonia, and 12 had pyramidal and extrapyramidal signs with dystonia (MMWR.