2], RPE cells, located between the neuroretina and the choriocapillaris
, which comprise the outer blood-retinal barrier, participate in the selective transport of metabolites, phagocytose the outer segments that are shed from photoreceptors, and act as antigen-presenting cells.
ICG can be performed in the same way as FA but using a different dye (indocyanine green); this provides better visualisation of the choroidal vasculature since fluorescein tends to permeate through the blood vessel walls in the choriocapillaris
obscuring the vessels beneath.
Fundus examination revealed bilateral atrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium and choriocapillaris
between the vascular arcades and surrounding the optic disc, which appeared as hypoautofluorescence on fundus autofluorescence imaging.
On OCT, acute CSCR appears as an elevation of the full-thickness neurosensory retina from the highly reflective RPE- choriocapillaris
complex separated by an optically empty zone with or without RPE detachments and significantly increased choroidal thickness in patients.
Multifocal serpiginoid choroiditis (MSC) is an uncommon clinical entity from the group of infectious choroiditis, which is characterized by sectoral nonperfusion of choriocapillaris
with subsequent ischemia and dysfunction of retinal pigment epithelium and photoreceptor cells of the outer retina(1,2).
The major pathological changes associated with AMD are observed in the functionally and anatomically related tissues including photoreceptors, retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), Bruch's membrane, and choriocapillaris
sup] It is characterized by choroidal neovascularization (CNV) and is associated with the growth of fibrovascular tissue from the choriocapillaris
through defects in Bruch's membrane into the subretinal space.
Aflibercept is another anti VEGF inhibitor that binds to circulating VEGFs and acts like a VEGF trap, inhibits the neovascularization in the choriocapillaris
or the tumor.
For the venous stage, the presence of contrast was considered in all retinal veins, as well as throughout the choriocapillaris
bed, keeping long term fluorescence (GALAN et al.
The hallmark feature of the disorder is a well-defined atrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and the choriocapillaris
Classic clinical findings include bone spicules, pigmentation or pigment clumping, retinal arteriolar narrowing, waxy pallor of the optic nerve, epiretinal membrane formation, atrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and choriocapillaris
(starting at the mid-periphery of the retina with preservation of the RPE in the macula until late in the disease), posterior sub-capsular cataract, epi-retinal membrane formation, and cystoid macular edema (CME) (Hamel, 2006).
The atrophic form, typically, involves the choriocapillaris
, retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), and photoreceptor elements (rods and cones) and does not involve leakage of blood or serum; hence, it is called dry ARMD.