chorangiosis

chorangiosis

A diffuse multifocal foeto-vascular defect, defined as the presence of 10 areas in the placenta with 10 microscopic fields containing 10 villi with 10 capillary lumens. The significance of chorangiosis as an independent prognostic factor of adverse pregnancy outcome is uncertain, but it is thought to increase foetal morbidity and mortality.
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The number of vascular channels present in terminal villi ranges from 2 to 6 and if the number increases beyond this then it is termed as 'villous hypervascularity (1).' The term 'chorangiosis' was introduced by Altshuler in 1984 and is defined as the presence of [greater than or equal to]10 terminal villi, each containing [greater than or equal to]10 capillaries per terminal villus in [greater than or equal to]10 low power (10x) fields in at least 3 or more random, non-infarcted cotyledons of the placenta (2).
Trisomy X: focal chorangiosis, with no features of aneuploidy [(b) magnification x100, H&E].
Placental tissues were available from 4 neonates; common findings were fibrinoid necrosis, chorangiosis, and amnion hyperplasia.
None of the placentas in both groups had chorangiosis. Features of chronic villitis were detected in 3 of the IUGR placentas and 1 of the control placenta and the difference was not significant (p 0.2).
The proposed diagnostic scheme is easily applicable to routine diagnostics, but, quite surprisingly, we did not find any comment on chorangiosis and only a little advice about clinicopathologic correlation.
This adaptive angiogenesis is manifest as chorangiosis (Figure 2), a common feature of tobacco-exposed placentas (Pfarrer et al.
Histopathologic findings considered contributory to FGR included the following: increased syncytial knots, villous agglutination, increased intervillous fibrin, distal villous hypoplasia, acute atherosis, mural hypertrophy in membrane arterioles, muscularization of basal plate arteries, increased placental site giant cells in decidua basalis, immature intermediate trophoblast in decidua basalis, thin umbilical cord (diameter of the umbilical cord [less than or equal to] 8 mm), uniformly avascular villi, villous stromal-vascular karyorrhexis, villitis of unknown etiology (VUE) with obliterative fetal vasculopathy, large fetal vessel thrombosis, fetal intimal fibrin cushion, chorangiosis, nucleated red cells in capillaries, and VUE.
Results: Heavy placentae with abundant villous immaturity, chorangiosis and syncytial knots in group B and fibrinoid necrosis and calcification in group C were seen.
Additional features that were noted on histology in the HIV-positive group included evidence of meconium exposure (n=10), focal infarct (n=1), focal decidual vasculopathy (n=1), dysmaturity (n=3), fetal thrombotic vasculopathy (n=1), chorangiosis (n=1), intervillous thrombus (n=2) and intervillous haemorrhage (n=3); and in the HIV-negative group, infarcts (n=2), decidual vasculopathy (n=1) and dysmaturity (n=2).
Chorangiosis was diagnosed based on the criteria laid down by Altshuler [1].