VAR2CSA is a large protein (350 kDa) that is structurally composed of six Duffy binding-like (DBL) domains (DBL1X, DBL2X, DBL3X, DBL4[epsilon], DBL5[epsilon], and DBL6[epsilon]) among them, three mediate binding to chondroitin sulfate A (CSA) (Clausen et al., 2012) (Figure 5).
Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells (IRBCs) bound to chondroitin sulfate A (CSA) (Figure 6) but not to other extracellular matrix proteins or to other known IRBC receptors.
falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) domains (variant protein named VAR2CSA) and chondroitin sulfate A (CSA) on the syncytiotrophoblasts (Figure 6) of placenta (Andersen et al., 2008; Gnidehou et al., 2014).
Structural and functional insight into how the Plasmodium falciparum VAR2CSA protein mediates binding to chondroitin sulfate A in placental malaria.
This type of chondroitin sulfate is sometimes referred to as chondroitin sulfate A or poly-galactosaminoglucuronoglycan sulfate.
Supplements are usually isomeric mixtures of chondroitin sulfate A and chondroitin sulfate C.
In degenerative joint disease, such as osteoarthritis, there is a loss of chondroitin sulfate as the cartilage erodes.
The U.S., UK & Germany show high adoption rate for chondroitin sulfate as
compared to other regions of the world due to rise in awareness towards osteoarthritis diagnosis among people, targeted efforts of government and non-governmental organizations towards osteoarthritis management, developed healthcare infrastructure, high prevalence of the disease in the region, etc.