Nog is critical to chondrogenesis
and osteogenesis embryonic joint formation (19-21).
In in vitro experiments, the researchers found that FA could strongly potentiated TGF-[beta]3-associated chondrogenesis
of MSCs, compared to the group stimulated only with TGF-[beta]3.
In addition, fibula in chick has more chondrogenesis
speed compared to tibia , yet, in quail the development rate of fibula is lower than tibia.
of MSCs in vitro mimics that of cartilage development in vivo.
Applications include long bone non-unions, avascular necrosis of the femoral head, severe clavicle non-unions, cartilage regeneration, chondrogenesis
and soft tissue repair of the shoulder, chronic tendonopathy, tendon ruptures as well as numerous applications to common, often difficult foot & ankle injuries and wrists fractures.
More recently, Wehrli and colleagues reported on the utility of Sox9, a transcription factor thought to be a master regulator of chondrogenesis
, as helpful in distinguishing mesenchymal chondrosarcoma from other small round blue cell tumors (5).
, osteogenesis and adipogenesis of canine mesenchymal stem cells: a biochemical, morphological and ultra structural study.
The adaptative remodeling of condilar cartilage-A transition from chondrogenesis
In vitro study has shown that chondrogenesis
and chondrocyte proliferation are negatively affected by myostatin suggesting that myostatin elimination has a potential improving of bone repair (104).
In vivo ectopic chondrogenesis
of BMSCs directed by mature chondrocytes.
Hedgehog signaling is required for cranial neural crest morphogenesis and chondrogenesis
at the midline in the zebrafish skull.
The cited side effects of long-term steroid therapy include disturbances in mineralized tissue metabolism and wound healing, discrepancies in chondrogenesis
and osteogenesis, bone loss and osteoporosis.