Previous studies have shown that Scop not only interrupt the cholinergic neurotransmitter
but also trigger the oxidative stress in the brains, which were both involved in the pathogeneses of AD (Lee et al.
Effects of PBDEs on the cholinergic neurotransmitter system in rodents were revealed primarily by hypoactive responses to neurotransmitter receptor agonists (Johansson et al.
Therefore, the disruption of normal brain development by (OH-) PBDE-induced hypothyroidism may be an underlying mechanism for the observed PBDE-induced alterations in the cholinergic neurotransmitter system in rodents.
McClenon views hypnosis as part of a general pattern of ASC, part of the brain's shift toward cholinergic neurotransmitter
systems that produce dreamlike mentation.
There are parallel deficits in the enzyme choline acetyltransferase, responsible for cholinergic neurotransmitter
formation, and in the transmitters norepinephrine and 5-hydroxytryptamine.
Effects of prenatal nicotine exposure on development of central and peripheral cholinergic neurotransmitter
Wesnes, who presented new data that showed congnitive improvements persist up to 30 minutes after smoking, speculates that nicotine might stimulate the cholinergic neurotransmitter
Effects of prenatal nicotine exposure on development of central end peripheral cholinergic neurotransmitter
systems are responsible for the secretion of pheromones (21).
Therefore, research has been carried out to test therapeutic targets under DBS (in animal studies and more recently in clinical trials) with the potential to delay the cognitive decline typically observed in AD patients (Arrieta-Cruz, Pavlides, & Pasinetti, 2010b; Hescham et al., 2015), to counteract the hallmark brain atrophy of the disease and increase the brain metabolism of glucose (Chamaa, Sweidan, Nahas, Saade, & Abou-Kheir, 2016; Sankar et al., 2015) and disaggregate and reduce the proteins that contribute to the pathology of AD and increase the levels of cholinergic neurotransmitters in the cerebral cortex (Gondard et al., 2015; Jeong et al., 2014).
Protein expression and cholinergic neurotransmitters
The ability to selectively control neuronal differentiation of PSCs into functional neurons expressing cholinergic neurotransmitters
and receptors is a significant step in understanding neurodegenerative diseases.