The experiment was carried out in a completely randomized design with a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement, including two feeding programs (ad libitum or early feed restriction) and three states of lipotropic supplementation (a control diet, 150 mg/kg carnitine as L-carnitine and 1,000 mg/kg choline as choline chloride
for Injection is a replacement therapy for patients receiving parenteral nutrition who are choline deficient.
Hence, choline has become an indispensable feed additive in the ration of broiler chickens as the above-stated problems can be counteracted by adding appropriate levels of synthetic choline chloride
InLine installed six of them to process the six primary ingredients that make up its pet food blend: alfalfa, salt, choline chloride
, pea fiber, agri mos and brewer's yeast.
A very common example of a DES is the mixture of choline chloride
and urea which is also named as reline for shortness.
(>98%) was obtained from Macklin Biochemical Co., Ltd.
Folic acid, vitamin [B.sub.12], and choline chloride
were supplied from Sigma-Aldrich (MO, USA).
Beware: lecithin products that list choline chloride
as an ingredient are synthetic and do not contain natural phosphatidylcholine.
Pregnant dams from saline control group were supplemented with saline throughout the period of gestation [from embryonic day 0 (E0) to delivery], choline group were supplemented with choline chloride
throughout the period of gestation [choline chloride 98% Extra Pure obtained from Loba Chemie Laboratory Reagents and Fine Chemicals] dissolved with distilled water (4.6mmol/kg/day of choline) , DHA group were supplemented with DHA throughout the period of gestation [soft gelatin capsules containing 300 mg docosahexaenoic acid/capsule were obtained from Nouveau Medicament (P) Ltd., Chennai] as such from the capsules (400mg/day of DHA) , and choline + DHA group were supplemented with both choline and DHA throughout the period of gestation.
A relatively new class of ionic liquid based on eutectic mixtures of choline chloride
with a hydrogen bond donor species has been reported by Abbott and Mckenzie (2006) and Abbott et al.
The Saudi Kayan is engaged mainly in establishing, managing, and operating an industrial complex in Jubail Industrial City to produce ethylene, propylene, polypropylene, polyethylene, ethylene glycol, aminomethyls, dimethylformamide, choline chloride
, amino ethyl, ethoxylates in addition to polycarbonate, with a total production and marketing capacity of 2.6 million tons per annum.