cholera toxin


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Related to cholera toxin: Vibrio cholerae

toxin

 [tok´sin]
a poison, especially a protein or conjugated protein produced by certain animals, higher plants, and pathogenic bacteria. Bacterial toxins characteristically do not cause symptoms until after a period of incubation while the microbes multiply, or (as happens with botulism) the preformed toxin reaches and affects the tissue. Usually only a few toxin-producing agents are introduced into the body, and it is not until there are enough of them to overwhelm the leukocytes and other types of antibodies that symptoms occur. In some cases of food poisoning, symptoms are almost immediate because the toxin is taken directly with the food. Toxins can cause antitoxins to form in the body, thus providing a means for establishing immunity to certain diseases.
bacterial t's toxins produced by bacteria, including exotoxins, endotoxins, enterotoxins, neurotoxins, and toxic enzymes. See also toxin.
botulinal toxin (botulinum toxin) (botulinus toxin) one of seven type-specific, immunologically differentiable exotoxins (types A to G) produced by Clostridium botulinum,neurotoxins usually found in imperfectly canned or preserved foods. They cause botulism by preventing release of acetylcholine by the cholinergic fibers. Type A is one of the most powerful poisons known; it is also used therapeutically by injection to inhibit muscular spasm in the treatment of dystonic disorders such as blepharospasm and strabismus, to treat wrinkles of the upper face, and to reduce anal sphincter pressure to promote healing of chronic anal fissure. Type B is injected in treatment of cervical dystonia. Called also botulin.
cholera toxin an exotoxin produced by Vibrio cholerae; a protein enterotoxin that binds to the membrane of enteric cells and stimulates the adenylate cyclase system, causing the hypersecretion of chloride and bicarbonate ions, resulting in increased fluid secretion and the severe diarrhea characteristic of cholera.
clostridial toxin one elaborated by species of Clostridium, including those causing botulism (botulinus toxin), gas gangrene (gas gangrene toxin), and tetanus (tetanus toxin). In addition, C. difficile produces an exotoxin causing severe intestinal necrosis and C. perfringens produces exotoxins causing gas gangrene, intestinal necrosis, hemolysis, cardiotoxicity, and deoxyribonuclease and hyaluronidase activity, as well as an enterotoxin causing food poisoning.
Dick toxin erythrogenic toxin.
diphtheria toxin a protein exotoxin produced by Corynebacterium diphtheriae that is primarily responsible for the pathogenesis of diphtheria and related infections; it is an enzyme that activates transferase II of the mammalian protein synthesizing system.
diphtheria toxin for Schick test a sterile solution of the diluted, standardized toxic products of Corynebacterium diphtheriae; used as a dermal reactivity indicator in the schick test of immunity to diphtheria.
dysentery toxin any of various exotoxins produced by species of Shigella; the one formed by S. dysenteriae serotype 1 is a potent neurotoxin with hemorrhagic and paralytic properties.
erythrogenic toxin a bacterial toxin from certain strains of Streptococcus pyogenes that produces an erythematous reaction when injected intradermally and is responsible for the rash in scarlet fever.
extracellular toxin exotoxin.
gas gangrene toxin an exotoxin that causes gas gangrene; there are at least 10 types produced by Clostridium perfringens and others produced by C. noriyi and C. septicum.
streptococcal toxin a mixture of exotoxins formed by Streptococcus pyogenes.
tetanus toxin the potent exotoxin produced by Clostridium tetani, consisting of two components, one a neurotoxin (tetanospasmin) and the other a hemolysin (tetanolysin).

Vib·ri·o chol·'er·ae

a bacterial species that produces a soluble exotoxin and is the cause of cholera in humans; it is the type species of the genus Vibrio.

cholera toxin

Infectious disease A heat-sensitive multimeric enterotoxin produced by Vibrio cholera, which transfers ADP-ribose to a G protein, locking adenyl cyclase in an 'on' position by ADP ribosylation of a Gs protein
References in periodicals archive ?
Kuyyakanond, "Large production of cholera toxin by Vibrio cholerae O1 in yeast extract peptone water," Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol.
Spangler, "Structure and function of cholera toxin and the related Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin," Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews, vol.
(2014) RNAi-mediated suppression of endogenous storage proteins leads to a change in localization of overexpressed cholera toxin B-subunit and the allergen protein RAG2 in rice seeds.
Heteropentameric cholera toxin B subunit chimeric molecules genetically fused to a vaccine antigen induces systemic and mucosal immune responses: a potential new strategy to target recombinant vaccine antigens to mucosal immune systems.
* The adjuvant activity of HA was higher than mucosal adjuvant cholera toxin in inducing neutralizing antibodies; and
After one-week acclimatization, the mice from PG and EG were intracutaneously injected with 100-[micro]g tropomyosin and 10-[micro]g cholera toxin (Sigma) as an adjuvant in 0.1 ml of PBS buffer twice weekly for a month.
Whereas multiple serogroups can cause vibriosis, only serogroups O1 and O139 that also contain the cholera toxin are classified as causes of cholera (4).
cholerae is a notifiable infection, and isolates from persons with suspected infections are submitted to the reference laboratory for confirmation, serotyping, and PCR testing for the cholera toxin gene (ctx).
(17) The recombinant protein was confirmed by western blot using anti-His-tag -conjugated HRP and anti-CTXB antiserum as LTB is structurally very similar to B subunit of cholera toxin (CTXB).
ETEC strains produce LT that is biochemically and immunologically related to cholera toxin. This toxin is a heterohexameric molecule with five B subunits and a single A subunit.
Cholera toxin (CT) is a strong mucosal immunogen as well as an effective adjuvant [2]; both the holotoxin and its subunits can be used as adjuvants for protein based vaccines [3,4].
Washington, Sept 12 ( ANI ): Researchers have identified an underlying biochemical mechanism that helps make cholera toxin so deadly, often resulting in life-threating diarrhea.