overflows, then Dreams are bred Of Flames and all the Family of Red; Red Dragons, and red Beasts in sleep we view; For Humours are distinguish'd by their Hue.
Gender, rather than being based on a binary model, was imagined to be a continuum: men are ideally hot and dry, with a proper balance of blood and choler
, while women are normally cold and wet, being dominated by bile and phlegm.
In medieval times and in the Renaissance, it was believed that a person's physical, emotional and intellectual well-being was influenced by one of four bodily fluids: choler
(yellow gall), blood, phlegm or black gall (melancholy).
These passions were psychological and physiological responses that were part of the body and the soul, deriving from the humours-blood, phlegm, choler
, and bile--but directed by the mind and spirits.
In early modern England talk of phlegm and choler
, blood and melancholy, resonated with echoes that we easily miss today and must strain hard to hear.
The prominent Elizabethan herbalist John Gerard noted in his 1633 Herbal, or General History of Plants that Dioscorides described the fern polypody as having the "power to purge and to draw forth choler
and flegme," and that it was "very good for members out of joint, and for chaps betweene the fingers.
It suffices to note that, among his other activities, John (who still served as the archbishop's official secretary) worked on behalf of Beckett's cause, both to affect conciliation with the king and to moderate the choler
of his friend and master.
In fact, friends may be one of the most important sources of social support for older gay men (Beeler, Rawls, Herdt, & Choler
It is not hyperbole to suggest that the federal prosecution killed him," Kaminer writes with uncharacteristic choler
cures yellow jaundice, eases headache, tempers the heat of stomach and liver, and is profitable given in long and hot agues which arise from choler
Percy was long attracted to such despairing indictments of contemporary culture, but in Lancelot he discredits the narrator's choler
and bile with the patience and charity of the soul-doctor Father John.
I have seen them throw expensive surgical instruments in their fits of choler