(37) In The Secret Miracles of Nature: In Four Books (1658), Levinus Lemnius is even more specific in noting that for all men, even if they were humorally healthy, there is one time of day, 'from nine in the morning till three in the afternoon', when 'black choler
, or melancholique juice doth its office...
The most feminine humor, Flegme, confronts the most masculine humor, Choler
, and critiques Aristotelian belief that women are cooler and therefore inferior to men.
Galen had combined the Empedoclean notion of the basic constituents of the universe (earth, fire, water, air) with the Hippocratic assumption that human beings were composed of four humors--black bile (melancholia), blood (sanguis), yellow bile (choler
), and phlegm (phlegma).
Edward's excuse that "Choler
to see the traitors gree so well / Made me think the shadows substances" (129-30) brings to mind discourses of representation, and builds an analogy between looking through the glass and looking at a play, where spectators must always be mindful of taking the action on stage too seriously.
He dropped the reins in the Breeders' Cup Classic and dropped the ball, allowing the relentless Tiznow to outgrind Giant's Causeway, but after the feathers had been spat and the choler
diffused, the blunder simply served to illustrate just how often we had taken Kinane's abilities for granted.
Such references to divine choler
reach far back into biblical tradition: Isaiah warns the people to hide "until the wrath is past" (Isa 26:20), where the angel of the Lord slays the first-born of Egyptian families (Exod 11-12), and Moses and the Israelites sing praise to the Lord, who "loosed your wrath to consume [Pharaoh's charioteers] like stubble.
Gwisgais drowsus brown lliain a brynais yn ddiweddar efo botymau yn addurn, a thop brown gyda streipiau hufen a choler
in convivium Platonis of 1469, in which the fifteenth-century philosopher and physician declares that music and forms comforted those afflicted with excessive melancholy or choler
. (16) Mancini's inference in appropriating this source was twofold: firstly, that painting might promote health, and secondly, that it affected viewers in accordance with their varied natures.
Yamada's supervisory advice is that the humour must be based on a healthy balance of 'blood, phlegm, choler
, and melancholy', and an absence of egotistic obsession.
Yellow milk was thought indicative of choler
, a blue tinge as indicative of melancholy, and pale milk as phlegmatic.
(73) Indeed the name of the disease, "cholera," comes from the term for yellow bile, "choler