Drugs that are usually used are: medications acting on GABA system: benzodiazepines (diazepam and clonazepam); baclofen; dantrolene sodium; gabapentin; alpha-adrenergic and serotonergic agents (noradrenergic pathways modulate the presynaptic inhibition of afferent spinal neurons): tizanidine; clonidine; dexmedetomidine; cyproheptadine; central myorelaxants: cyclobenzaprine, carisoprodol, methocarbamol, metaxalone, chlorzoxazone, chlorphenesin
, chlorpromazine; and cannabis and cannabinoid-like substances (dronabilon, nabilone).
Examples include triclosan (found in tooth paste) and chlorphenesin
; they do not break down in the environment and may contribute to bacterial resistance to antibiotics.
Table 1 Preservative permissible in the United States, European Union and Japan (22) Preservative Maximum allowable level Paraben Esters (including: 0.8% methylparaben, propylparaben, ethylparaben, butylparaben, isopropylparaben, isobutylparaben) Benzyl alcohol 1.0% Phenoxyethanol 1.0% Chlorhexidine 0.3% Chlorphenesin
0.3% (EU); 0.05% (Japan) Dehydroacetic acid 0.6% (EU); 0.5% (Japan) Sorbic acid 0.6% (EU); 0.5% (Japan)
Beauty Ingredients: Ceramide natural, inositol, molasses extract, mango but-ter, triclosan, isopropyl methylphenol, chlorphenesin
, benzyl nicotinate, L-glutathione
(phenoxyethanol & caprylyl glycol & chlorphenesin
Phase C Yangu Oil (Coast Southwest, International Cosmetic 3.00 Science Centre) (Calodendrum capense nut oil) Cosmosil 660 Shea Oil (Coast Southwest, 1.50 International Cosmetic Science Centre) (Butyrospermum parkii (shea) oil) Olivatis 19 (Coast Southwest, Medolla Limited) 3.00 (Olive oil polyglyceryl-6 esters (and) phospholipids) Phase D Sharomix CPC30 (Coast Southwest, Sharon-Laboratories) 0.50 (Phenylpropanol (and) caprylyl glycol (and) chlorphenesin
) Fragrance 1.45 PROCEDURE: Phase A-In main vessel, combine phase A ingredients in formula order with shear mixing and heat to 140[degrees]F to 149[degrees]F (60-65[degrees]C).
INGREDIENTS WT% Phase A Water 82.43 Sodium Lauroyl Glutamate, Water, Sodium Chloride 0.20 Stearyl Alcohol 0.90 Polyglyceryl-3 Methylglycose Distearate 0.90 Chlorphenesin
0.10 Phase B Acrylates/C10-30 Alkyl Acrylate Crosspolymer 0.40 Coco-Caprylate 4.00 Phase C Dimethicone, Dimethicone Crosspolymer 3.00 Dimethicone 4.00 Phase D Phenoxyethanol, Ethylhexylglycerin 0.80 Pentavitin (DSM Nutritional Products Ltd./Centerchem) 1.00 Sodium Hydroxide, 30% 0.27 PROCEDURE: Add components of Phase A to vessel and heat to 85[degrees]C with mixing.
The line includes Lintelligence IQ-LL-1, anhydrous multifunctional antimicrobial based on chlorphenesin
and dehydroacetic acid with the value added slip agent Lauroyl Lysineto Lintelligence IQ-PCA-2.
to 100 Phenoxyethanol, ethylhexylglycerin 1.00 Chlorphenesin
0.20 Phase B Glycerin 4.00 Xanthan gum 0.20 Phase C Cetearyl glucoside 1.50 Cetearyl alcohol 1.00 Caprylic/capric triglyceride 5.00 Isohexadecane 5.00 Beauactive (DSM Nutritional Products/Centerchem) 1.00 Hydroxyethyl acrylate/sodium acryloyldimethyl 0.50 taurate copolymer Phase D Fragrance 0.20 PROCEDURE: Combine components of Phase A in vessel with mixing whileheating to 80-85[degrees]C.
According to Albert Babik, general manager, Jeen International Corporation, Fairfield, NJ, Jeecide Chloro-Lo is chlorphenesin
, a preservative with antibacterial and antifungal properties that can be used alone or in conjunction with other preservatives and potentiators in leave-on or rinse-off products.
to 100 lysolecithin, sclerotium gum, caprylyl glycol, chlorphenesin
, pullulan, xanthan gum, sodium phytate, silica) Phase B Syn-Star (DSM Nutritional Products/Centerchem, Inc.) 4.00 Niacinamide PC (DSM Nutritional Products) 4.00 Pentavitin (DSM Nutritional Products/Centerchem, Inc.) 1.00 Phase C Fragrance 0.05 Product formulas are supplied by producers of raw materials.
Phenoxyethanol, caprylyl glycol, chlorphenesin