Several drugs like mepivacaine, tetracaine and chloroprocaine
have been used before and most of these drug produced unwanted side effects that led to discontinuation of use of these drugs.
12however, suggested that increasing pH in buffered lignocaine is unable to fully explain the minimization of pain on injection, as clinical experiences have proven that procaine and chloroprocaine
, although more acidic than lignocaine, are less painful on infiltration.
The ester group of local anaesthetic agents include: cocaine, chloroprocaine
, procaine and tetracaine.
Local anesthetics are given by injection or topically, and include benzocaine, bupivacaine (Marcaine, Sensorcaine), chloroprocaine
(Nesacaine), camphor, dibucaine (Nuper-cainal), levobupivacaine (Chirocaine), lidocaine (Xylocaine, Octocaine), mepivacaine (Carbocaine, Polocaine), pramoxine, prilocaine (Citanest), procaine (Novocaine), ropivacaine (Naropin), and tetracaine (Pontocaine).
A study comparing the use of lidocaine with chloroprocaine, a shorter acting anesthetic, for DPNB in newborns confirmed that both medications were effective and safe (Spencer et al.
Dorsal penile nerve block in neonatal circumcision: Chloroprocaine versus lidocaine.
We could not find a satisfactory explanation for the pain experienced by them on injection of lignocaine, although pain on injection of local anaesthetic solution in IVRA has been reported previously with prilocaine and chloroprocaine
11,12) and alkalinisation of the solution has been found to be effective in reducing the pain of injection of prilocaine (11).
The effects of bupivacaine and chloroprocaine
as local anesthetics for epidural anesthesia on fetal heart rate monitoring parameters.
The less cardiotoxic local anaesthetic agents, such as lignocaine or chloroprocaine
, have been used to test for systemic local anaesthetic side-effects when initiating blocks (45,46), but this practice cannot be recommended.
Belfrage P, Floberg J: Obstetrical paracervical block with chloroprocaine
or bupivacaine, a comparison.