Local anesthetics are given by injection or topically, and include benzocaine, bupivacaine (Marcaine, Sensorcaine), chloroprocaine
(Nesacaine), camphor, dibucaine (Nuper-cainal), levobupivacaine (Chirocaine), lidocaine (Xylocaine, Octocaine), mepivacaine (Carbocaine, Polocaine), pramoxine, prilocaine (Citanest), procaine (Novocaine), ropivacaine (Naropin), and tetracaine (Pontocaine).
We could not find a satisfactory explanation for the pain experienced by them on injection of lignocaine, although pain on injection of local anaesthetic solution in IVRA has been reported previously with prilocaine and chloroprocaine
11,12) and alkalinisation of the solution has been found to be effective in reducing the pain of injection of prilocaine (11).
The less cardiotoxic local anaesthetic agents, such as lignocaine or chloroprocaine
, have been used to test for systemic local anaesthetic side-effects when initiating blocks (45,46), but this practice cannot be recommended.