chloroplast

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chloroplast

 [klor´o-plast]
the photosynthetic unit of a plant cell, containing all the chlorophyll.

chlor·o·plast

(klōr'ō-plast),
A plant cell inclusion body containing chlorophyll; occurs in cells of leaves and young stems. Site of photosynthesis in higher plants.
[chloro- + G. plastos, formed]
Chloroplastclick for a larger image
Fig. 101 Chloroplast . (a) Thin section through a whole chloroplast. (b) Thylakoid arrangement. (c) An enlarged section of a granum.

chloroplast

a type of PLASTID containing CHLOROPHYLL found within the cells of plant leaves and stems. The chlorophyll is packed within granules called quantasomes which are located in the walls of flattened sacs called LAMELLAE or thylakoids. The lamellae lie closely together in certain areas to form grana and are more separate in the intergranal regions. LIGHT REACTIONS of photosynthesis are thought to take place in the quantasomes while DARK REACTIONS occur in the watery matrix surrounding the lamellae, the stroma.
References in periodicals archive ?
Protecting cotton photosynthesis during moderate chilling at high light intensity by increasing chloroplastic antioxidant enzyme activity.
However, the MALDITOF-MS data analysis did not indicate if it is the cytoplasmic or the chloroplastic form of the enzyme.
Nakai, "The arabidopsis chloroplastic NifU-like protein CnfU, which can act as an iron-sulfur cluster scaffold protein, is required for biogenesis of ferredoxin and photosystem I," Plant Cell, vol.
(2001) which observed that salt-stress spread mitochondrial activities and chloroplastic antioxidant enzymes in leaf, offering a protection for cells against superoxide.
Pyramiding of chloroplastic and mitochondrial Mn-superoxide dismutases in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) resulted in lower biomass production as compared with the transgenic plants expressing either one of the Mn-superoxide dismutases (Samis et al., 2002).
In such studies, effects of the chloroplastic resistance mutation may be confounded with effects of differences in nuclear genome-controlled traits between TR and TS populations (Gressel and Ben Sinai, 1985; Holt, 1988).
The genes retained in the mitochondrial genomes have been proposed preferentially to encode core proteins involved in electron transfers [32], and a colocalization of the redox regulation (CoRR) mechanism was proposed to explain why the mitochondrial and chloroplastic organelles retain their own genes, or proteins [33, 34].
Gusta, "Isolation, chromosomal localization, and differential expression of mitochondrial manganese superoxide dismutase and chloroplastic copper/zinc superoxide dismutase genes in wheat," Plant Physiology, vol.
Higher plants have a cytosolic and chloroplastic form of the enzyme (Lara et al., 1984).
Moreover, photosynthesis rates (A) and the depletion of 13C in leaves are directly related to the chloroplastic P of CO2 (Pc) rather than to Pi (Loreto et al., 1992; Centritto et al., 2003; Loreto and Centritto, 2008).