"Taken together, these findings suggest a possible link between chloroplast-to-nucleus communication and chloroplast
RNA editing, which are important regulatory functions for flowering plants, especially during stress," said Chory.
Now, Salk Institute researchers have found that GUN1 -- a gene that integrates numerous chloroplast-to-nucleus retrograde signaling pathways -- also plays an important role in how proteins are made in damaged chloroplasts
, which provides a new insight into how plants respond to stress.
DNA, including chloroplast
DNA, was extracted from slices of parapodia, taken from a preserved single specimen at a time.
(1986) A ring structure around the dividing plane of the Cyanidium caldarium chloroplast
. Protoplasma 130, 211-213.
Our results show that a weak shading less than 45% of full exposure in the summer didn't significantly affect the growth of grape plants and leaf gas exchange parameters, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, tissue cell microstructure, chloroplast
ultrastructure and other physiology-biochemistry indexes.
2010, 2012, Villarreal and Renner 2014) and is characterized by: 1) thallus solid (without cavities), green to dark green, pinnate or irregularly branched, usually without a midrib, margins crispate-undulate or finely ruffled and [+ or -] colorless; 2) thallus cells with 1-3 chloroplasts
; 3) sporophytes erect and often very long (over 5 cm long), walls without stomata; 4) spores green, unicellular or multicellular; 5) elaters long and narrow (to 450 [micro]m long), with a spiral band.
Composition of photosystems and chloroplast
structure in extreme shade plants.
clystocarpus was confirmed using AFLP markers in combination with sequences of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region and the chloroplast
trnL-F intron and spacer .
Fresh leaves were used to extract total chloroplast
DNA with the Tiagen Plant Genomic DNA Kit (Beijing, China).
In the cortex, there are cavities and they are 2-3 layered with chloroplast
Matt Jacobs, a PhD student at the university's School of Biological Sciences and first author of a (http://www.nature.com/articles/nplants2016162.epdf?referrer_access_token=_cX35CREFGrVZth-10DRz9RgN0jAjWel9jnR3ZoTv0PGL2j_kXFR3rWy5Ton4-CoHKxGP0NF8PSzodA3KbYE_OrQwOaiJi9wU-xNWSddcrwcx9VzaMQ5RvggerfGW8NO0sVcpfYqGO9GbPVFLwUXmF8lPjEorMt_zdQUa0tajayos6d8CxYHfj4) research paper on the subject, said in a (http://www.bristol.ac.uk/news/2016/october/begonia.html) statement : "We discovered under the microscope, individual chloroplasts
in these leaves reflected blue light brightly, almost like a mirror.
Abbreviations: MEGA 5 Molecular Evolutionary Genetic Analysis Version 5, rps 11 Ribosomal Protein Subunit 11, cpDNA Chloroplast