cells have radial arrangement around the VBs.
Fibrous strands located above the abaxial hypodermis are absent (55) or present forming one or two rows with one or several shapes (56 arrosetate, 57 round in outline variable in size, 58 raceme-shaped, 59 arrosetate mixed with round in outline); chlorenchyma
is continuous above abaxial hypodermis (60) or discontinuous, then outer fibrous strands are directly above the hypodermis.
(C)###0516-2###One to three layers of irregularly arranged parenchymatous cells containing chloroplasts, which was###Fig.
was the most abundant tissue of the mesophyll of M.
Careyanae, Granulares, and Griseae form a clade with good support (B.S.=84%) diagnosed by three synapomorphies: lateral spikes with axes opposed by faces of perigynia (#20), chlorenchyma
with scattered pigment cells (#46), and perigynia each with four or more vascular bundles (#48).
Cell wall development was most pronounced in collenchyma, primary phloem, and primary xylem vessels at the first sampling date, while other tissues such as epidermis, chlorenchyma
, and pith parenchyma had only thin primary walls (Fig.
syphilitica, there are between three-five chlorenchyma
layers and a continuous sclerenchymatic ring enveloping the vascular cylinder (Fig.
As common in other Poaceae, bamboos have similar characters of leaf anatomy, such as fusiform and arm cells in the chlorenchyma
, not radiate mesophyll and two-celled trichomes of the Panicum type (GPWG 2001).
undifferentiated; spongy mesophyll with less than five
This species has all the morphoanatomical features of xerophytes: cuticle on leaf epidermis, hypodermis aquifer, vascular bundle hem, hem extension lignified, and little intercellular space in chlorenchyma
. The alternation of aquatic and terrestrial phases exposes the root system of this plant to complete anoxia or hypoxia in a given period, which may mean deviation from the ecological optimum, and results in responses that suggest the existence of an adaptive traits complex, not only structural but also physiological.
undifferentiated; palisade layers; spongy mesophyll with more than five layers.