chloramphenicol


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chloramphenicol

 [klor″am-fen´ĭ-kol]
a broad-spectrum antibiotic with specific therapeutic activity against rickettsiae and many different bacteria. Side effects include serious, even fatal, blood dyscrasias in certain patients. Frequent blood tests are recommended during therapy.

chlor·am·phen·i·col

(klōr'am-fen'i-kol),
An antibiotic originally obtained from Streptomyces venezuelae. It is effective against several pathogenic microorganisms. A serious reaction resulting in marrow damage with agranulocytosis or aplastic anemia may occur. Gray syndrome may occur in newborns because glucuronosyltransferase, needed to metabolize the drug, is lacking.

chloramphenicol

(klôr′ăm-fĕn′ĭ-kôl′, -kŏl′, -kōl′)
n.
A broad-spectrum antibiotic, C11H12Cl2N2O5, derived from the soil bacterium Streptomyces venezuelae or produced synthetically.

chloramphenicol

Infectious disease A broad-spectrum antibiotic effective against gram-positive cocci–eg Staphylococcus aureus and gram-negative coccobacilli–eg Brucella abortus Complications Aplastic anemia

chlor·am·phen·i·col

(klōr'am-fen'i-kol)
An antibiotic originally obtained from Streptomyces venezuelae. It is effective against various pathogenic microorganisms, including Staphylococcus aureus, Brucella abortus, Friedländer bacillus, and the organisms of typhoid, typhus,and Rocky Mountain spotted fever; active by mouth. A serious reaction resulting in marrow damage with agranulocytosis or aplastic anemia may occur.

chloramphenicol

An antibiotic originally derived from the soil bacterium Streptomyces venezuelae . It is highly effective in many serious conditions but has some dangerous side effects which limit its use mainly to external eye infections. In view of the spread of antibiotic-resistant organisms, however, systemic chloramphenicol is again being used to treat dangerous infections. The drug is on the WHO official list. Brand names of the eye preparations are Chloromycetin, Kemicetin, Minims chloramphenicol and Sno Phenicol.

chloramphenicol

a BACTERIOSTATIC antibiotic produced by a species of Streptomyces that interferes with protein synthesis on the 50S subunit of the RIBOSOME of prokaryotes. Chloramphenicol inhibits the activity of the enzyme peptidyl transferase which catalyses the formation of peptide bonds between amino acids as they are added to the polypeptide chain.

chloramphenicol 

A broad-spectrum antibiotic effective against a wide variety of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria (but not Pseudomonas aeruginosa). It is commonly used in solution 0.5% or ointment 1% to treat bacterial conjunctivitis or blepharitis.

chlor·am·phen·i·col

(klōr'am-fen'i-kol)
An antibiotic effective against several pathogenic microorganisms.
References in periodicals archive ?
To determine the resistance profile of the isolated strains, we selected different groups of antibiotics like ampicillin, nitrofurantoin, tetracycline, cefotaxime, nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin, co-trimoxazole, meropenem, imipenem, chloramphenicol, gentamicin, piperacillin-tazobactum (20).
As expected, A, baumannii 34280 and K, pneumoniae 28341, both showing efflux-independent resistance (EIR) to tetracycline or chloramphenicol, presented no changes in the MIC, whether cultured in the presence of xylose or glucose as the sole carbon source (Table 1).
The resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol and TMP/SMX has been a major cause for concern in the recent years.3 The cause of MDR can be attributed to misuse of antimicrobials which are available over the counter and their unchecked use without proper medical supervision.9
of Isolates Sensitive Isolates Nalidixic Acid (30 [micro]g) 69 6 (08.69%) Amoxicillin (10 [micro]g) 69 60 (86.95%) Chloramphenicol (30 [micro]g) 69 63 (91.30%) Co-trimoxazole 69 69 (100%) (1.25/23.75 [micro]g) Ciprofloxacin (5 [micro]g), 69 60 (86.95%) Ceftriaxone (30 [micro]g) 69 69 (100%) MDR * 69 63 (91.30) * Defined as resistance to amoxicillin, chloramphenicol and co-trimoxazole DISCUSSION
Around 62.6% of our MRSA isolates are susceptible to chloramphenicol. A similar susceptibility profile was reported by Hussain et al in the Kohat District8.
were sensitivity to Norfloxacin, Chloramphenicol, Cephalexin, Azithromycin and Ciprofoxacin equally.
Therefore, it was decided to study also the antibacterial activity of thymol and geraniol individually and in combination with chloramphenicol.
The sensitivity to first line drugs like ampicillin chloramphenicol and co-trimaxazole were 2.8% 12.3% and 22.6% respectively in the present study.
baumannii LMG 1025 LMG 1041 Coriander oil 1 4 Cefoperazone 32(I) 64(R) Chloramphenicol 32(R) 64(R) Ciprofloxacin 0.125(S) 0.25(S) Gentamicin 0.25 (S) 8(I) Piperacillin 16(S) 32(I) Tetracycline 0.5(S) 1(I) R-resistant, I-intermediate, S-sensitive.
fragilis were similar to those from Brazil, (4) demonstrating resistance rates of 12% for cefoxitin, 15.1% for cefotaxime, 1% for chloramphenicol, 18.2% for clindamycin, 75.7% for tetracycline and 16% for metronidazole.
However, there are no pathognomic features to distinguish such infections from infections with fully sensitive S.typhi at presentation.6 Chloramphenicol resistance became established globally in the S.
Lab M has added two new products to its expanding portfolio of specialist culture media for the isolation of yeasts and moulds from foodstuffs: Dichloran Rose Bengal Chloramphenicol Agar (ISO) and Dichloran 18% Glycerol Agar (ISO).