Most swab samples were collected from cockatiels (N hollandicus) with a high detection rate of chlamydiosis
. In symptomatic birds, the highest prevalence rate of chlamydial infection was diagnosed in Alexandrine parakeets (P eupatria; 40%) in asymptomatic birds, highest prevalence rates were in ring-necked parakeets (P kramerr, 45.5%) and also in orange-winged Amazon parrots (Amazona amazonica; 100%, 1 positive of 1 sample collection).
Birds with avian chlamydiosis
either present with acute disease (upper respiratory signs, anorexia, lethargy, and green feces), chronic disease (sick, unthrifty bird with poor feather coat), or as an asymptomatic chronic carrier (appear normal with no signs of disease).
Detection of chlamydiosis
in a shipment of pet birds, leading to recognition of an outbreak of clinically mild psittacosis in humans.
The immunization protects against chlamydiosis
and other common infectious diseases.
Other causes included musculoskeletal disorders in emus (particularly hand-reared) and rheas; trauma in neonate ostriches, mainly due to crushing by parents; leg deformities in emu chicks and juveniles; general sepsis in hand-reared ratite chicks due to a chlamydiosis
outbreaks (1989-1990); trauma by conspecifics in subadult ostriches and emus; stress myopathy in subadult rheas, particularly after introduction to a new enclosure; evisceration inflicted by herbivorous enclosure mates on adult male ostriches; fatal peritonitis following salpingitis in adult female ostriches; and death associated with ocular disorder in adult male emus.
The cat was regularly vaccinated for common feline diseases (feline panleukopenia, rhinhotracheitis, calicivirosis, and chlamydiosis
) and showed negative test results for retroviral infections.
Humans, on the other hand, can be affected with psittacosis or chlamydiosis
. Having this kind of infections are hard to detect since psittacosis will present as non-specific clinical signs such as depression, anorexia, and bright green urates in birds.
If our results obtained in cultured cells have some equivalence to in vivo systems, the addition of RESV to antibiotic regimens may hold some promise for treatment of chlamydiosis
. In: Manual of standards for diagnostic tests and vaccines.
The other 8 (17.5%) additionally to the above specified infections were infected with the third one (chlamydiosis
, ureaplasmosis, mycoplasmosis).