coeliac disease

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coeliac disease

A malabsorptive syndrome caused by hypersensitivity of intestinal mucosa to alpha-gliadin, a gluten extract composed of glutamine and proline-rich proteins that is found in wheat, barley, rye, and oats.
 
Clinical findings
Diarrhoea, copious fatty stools, abdominal distension, weight loss, haemorrhage, osteopenia, muscle atrophy, peripheral neuropathy, CNS and spinal cord demyelination (sensory loss, ataxia), amenorrhoea, infertility, oedema, petechiae, dermatitis herpetiformis (especially if HLA B27), alopecia areata. Occult bleeding occurs in half of patients.
 
Lab
Transaminases (ALT, AST) are increased in ± 40% of patients with CD, which usually normalises with a gluten-free diet; iron deficiency, anaemia due to occult bleeding.

Diagnosis
Duodenal biopsy; anti-gliadin and anti-endomysial antibodies.
 
Management
Eliminate gliadin from diet.

Prognosis
Without treatment, 10–15% develop lymphoma (e.g., immunoblastic lymphoma; less commonly, T cell lymphoma), a risk that increases with disease duration. CD predisposes to gastrointestinal lymphoma and carcinoma of the oral cavity and oesophagus; the otherwise rare small intestinal adenocarcinoma is 80-fold more common in CD.
Segen's Medical Dictionary. © 2012 Farlex, Inc. All rights reserved.

ce·li·ac dis·ease

(sē'lē-ak di-zēz')
A disease occurring in children and adults characterized by sensitivity to gluten, with chronic inflammation and atrophy of the mucosa of the upper small intestine; manifestations include diarrhea, malabsorption, steatorrhea, and nutritional and vitamin deficiencies.
Synonym(s): gluten enteropathy, coeliac disease.
Medical Dictionary for the Health Professions and Nursing © Farlex 2012

coeliac disease

An intestinal disorder caused by intolerance to the gluten proteins the gliadins, hordeins and secalins in wheat, barley and rye. The intestinal mucosa becomes infiltrated with CD8 and CD4 lymphocytes (T cells) leading to crypt hyperplasia and atrophy of the absorbing VILLI. The result is MALABSORPTION, especially of fats, with fat excretion in the stools (STEATORRHOEA). The condition is also called ‘gluten-induced enteropathy’.
Collins Dictionary of Medicine © Robert M. Youngson 2004, 2005

ce·li·ac dis·ease

(sē'lē-ak di-zēz') [MIM*212750]
A disease occurring in children and adults characterized by sensitivity to gluten, with chronic inflammation and atrophy of the mucosa of the upper small intestine.
Synonym(s): gluten enteropathy, coeliac disease.
Medical Dictionary for the Dental Professions © Farlex 2012
References in periodicals archive ?
Norstrom et al., "Reduced prevalence of childhood celiac disease: an effect of changes in infant feeding?" The Journal of Pediatrics, vol.
New developments in serodiagnosis of childhood celiac disease: assay of antibodies against deamidated gliadin.
Natural history of antibodies to deamidated gliadin peptides and transglutaminase in early childhood celiac disease. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr.
Partial IgA deficiency and the accuracy of IgA tissue transglutaminase antibodies in childhood celiac disease [Abstract].
Role of pancreatic impairment in growth recovery during gluten-free diet in childhood celiac disease. Gastroenterology 1997;112:1839-44.
Antibody pattern in childhood celiac disease. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 1997;24: 559-62.
Diagnostic value of various serum antibodies detected by diverse methods in childhood celiac disease. Clin Chem 1996;42:1838-42.

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