A third model, commonly evoked in the human gastrointestinal literature, posits that microbial growth in the intestine resembles growth in a chemostat
(Macfarlane et al., 1998), with bacterial cell proliferation being driven by influx of nutrients into the system and balanced by efflux of contents out of the system.
DYNAMICS OF THE CHEMOSTAT
. Abdelhamid Ajbar and Khalid Alhumaizi.
Intensive rotifer cultures using chemostats
. Hydrobiologia 186/187: 423-430.
Until today, Tilman's models have been tested for plankton exclusively in chemostats
, which cannot be used for crustaceans because these animals are strong swimmers and can avoid being washed out.
Efficiency of rotifer chemostats
in relation to salinity regimes for producing rotifers for aquaculture.
coli in chemostats
. Molecular Biology and Evolution 9:394-402.
Selection of laboratory wild-type phenotype from natural isolates of Escherichia coli in chemostats
For example, Gerhart and Likens (1975) compared four nutrient bioassay techniques: enrichments of large polyethylene enclosures (1700 L), continuous cultures of the natural phytoplankton community (8-L chemostats
), long-term (several days) 14C bioassays (130-mL bottles), and short-term (4-30 h) 14C bioassays (130-mL bottles).
But even conflict between individuals playing different roles (e.g., male-female, parent-offspring) is not necessary, as demonstrated by Paquin and Adams (1983) in their studies of asexual yeast populations living in chemostats
. In one population sampled seven times over 305 generations, each sample was more fit than the previous one by an average of 9.18%.
Scenedesmus acutus was cultured in chemostats
with continuous light.
Selection in chemostats
. Microbiological Reviews 47:150168.
Caron (1990) found reduced yield coefficients for a kinetoplastid flagellate and a colorless chrysophyte when they were grown in chemostats
at low growth rates (6-7% of [[Mu].sub.max]).