chemoreceptor


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chemoreceptor

 [ke″mo-re-sep´ter]
any of the special cells or organs adapted for excitation by chemical substances and located outside the central nervous system. The carotid and aortic bodies are chemoreceptors in the large arteries of the thorax and the neck; they are responsive to changes in the oxygen, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen ion concentrations in the blood. When oxygen concentration falls below normal in the arterial blood, they send impulses to stimulate the respiratory center so that there will be an increase in alveolar ventilation and thus an increase in the intake of oxygen by the lungs. Other chemoreceptors are the taste buds, which are sensitive to chemicals in the mouth, and the olfactory cells of the nose, which detect certain chemicals in the air.
Miller-Keane Encyclopedia and Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing, and Allied Health, Seventh Edition. © 2003 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. All rights reserved.

che·mo·re·cep·tor

(kē'mō-rē-sep'tŏr),
Any cell that when activated by a change in its chemical milieu produces a nerve impulse. Such cells can be either 1) "transducer" cells innervated by sensory nerve fibers (for example, the gustatory receptor cells of the taste buds or cells in the carotid body sensitive to changes in the oxygen and carbon dioxide content of the blood), or 2) nerve cells proper, such as the olfactory receptor cells of the olfactory mucosa, and certain cells in the brainstem that are sensitive to changes in the composition of the blood or cerebrospinal fluid.
Synonym(s): chemoceptor
Farlex Partner Medical Dictionary © Farlex 2012

chemoreceptor

(kē′mō-rĭ-sĕp′tər, kĕm′ō-)
n.
A sensory nerve cell or sense organ, as of smell or taste, that responds to chemical stimuli.
The American Heritage® Medical Dictionary Copyright © 2007, 2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

che·mo·re·cep·tor

, chemoceptor (kē'mō-rĕ-sep'tŏr, kēmō-septŏr)
Any cell that responds to a change in its chemical milieu with a nerve impulse. Such cells can be either "transducer" cells innervated by sensory nerve fibers (e.g., the gustatory cells of the taste buds) or nerve cells proper, such as the olfactory receptor cells of the olfactory mucosa.
Medical Dictionary for the Health Professions and Nursing © Farlex 2012

chemoreceptor

a RECEPTOR that is stimulated by contact with molecules and is capable of reacting to and differentiating between different chemical stimuli. Chemoreceptors are found where external stimuli are being sampled, for example in the taste buds and in the mucous membranes of the nose. They are also found within the body, sampling the internal environment.
Collins Dictionary of Biology, 3rd ed. © W. G. Hale, V. A. Saunders, J. P. Margham 2005

che·mo·re·cep·tor

, chemoceptor (kē'mō-rĕ-sep'tŏr, kēmō-septŏr)
Any cell that responds to a change in its chemical milieu with a nerve impulse.
Medical Dictionary for the Dental Professions © Farlex 2012
References in periodicals archive ?
Central chemoreceptors. Other receptors known as central chemoreceptors are found in the brain.
Factors affecting the cat carotid chemoreceptor and cervical sympathetic activity with special reference to passive hind-limb movements.
(2009) General redox environment and carotid body chemoreceptor function.
Feeding behavior or preference for particular host species depends on the various sensilla present on the insects' mouthparts, including olfactory, gustatory, and mechanosensory ones, which are involved in sensory perception via chemoreceptors (Dey et al.
Martinez, "Effects of aging on peripheral chemoreceptor C[O.sub.2] response during sleep and wakefulness in healthy men," Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology, vol.
The beauty of this method is that a linear relationship has been shown to exist between the minute ventilation (VE) and PCO2 changes of arterial blood and medillary chemoreceptor tissue.
Keith Jones, the olfactory (smell) and gustatory (taste) chemoreceptor systems of channel catfish don't detect all substances equally.
Beneficial effects of oxygen could be related to changes in chemoreceptor stimulation, changes in breathing pattern, and/or stimulation of receptors related to gas flow through the upper airway.
In well-grown fetuses, the MCA PSV increase is related to the haemoglobin but not the partial pressure of oxygen (p[O.sub.2]), suggesting that this reflects decreased blood viscosity and increased venous return rather than an active fetal compensatory mechanism by p[O.sub.2]-related chemoreceptor stimulation (to increase cardiac contractility and cause vasodilatation).
Opioids inhibit chemoreceptor sensitivity to C[O.sub.2] and blunt chemoreceptor sensitivity to hypoxia.
Suppression of the chemoreceptor responses to increased carbon dioxide levels by anaesthetic drugs and opioid analgesics blunt the normally protective central response, increasing breathing efforts (Jungquist, Karan & Perlis, 2011; McGloin, 2008; Kumar & George, 2010).