In order to further elucidate CCL2 and SPP1 mechanisms of action on OE-MSC migration, we then evaluated the relative contribution of random cell motility (chemokinesis
) and gradient-dependent cell migration (chemotaxis) of human OE-MSCs in response to CCL2 and SPP1.
An L-tryptophan gradient also induced marked chemokinesis
near eggs and mimics alike.
Endothelial cell chemokinesis
, chemotaxis, proliferation, and tube formation are complementary assays that need to be confirmed in vivo.
Entschladen, "Effects of neurotransmitters on the chemokinesis
and chemotaxis of MDA-MB-468 human breast carcinoma cells," Breast Cancer Research and Treatment, vol.
Studies from Stephens and colleagues  further elucidated roles for PI3K in neutrophil movement, demonstrating PI3K[gamma]-mediated PIP3 accumulation at the leading edge of the cell to be a vital step in chemokinesis
, thus determining the proportion of cells able to move toward a chemokine gradient .
Nicoleau et al., "NPY promotes chemokinesis
and neurogenesis in the rat subventricular zone," Journal of Neurochemistry, vol.
A striking example of the oxidative stress, inflammation link in ageing, is the decreased capacity for neutrophil chemokinesis
reported in the elderly both in terms of motility and accuracy .
Zhuang et al., "Vaspin attenuates high glucose-induced vascular smoothmuscle cells proliferation and chemokinesis
by inhibiting the MAPK, PI3K/Akt, and NF-[kappa]B signaling pathways," Atherosclerosis, vol.
Mechanisms known to be used for orienting with respect to chemical gradients include chemotaxis or chemokinesis
and rely upon the ability to sample the milieu either spatially (comparing inputs to more than one chemosensory structure at the same time and responding to balance inputs--more correctly known as tropotaxis) or temporally (sampling at one location, moving, then sampling again--more correctly known as klinotaxis).
Literature data suggest that during the chronization of inflammation these cytokines support the chemotaxis and chemokinesis
of leucocytes and macrophages with an increase of their numbers in inflammation area [3,14,15].
Chemotaxis is stimulus-oriented (directed) movement, whereas chemokinesis
is stimulus-induced movement without directional orientation.
Reid, "Murine mast cells express two types of C1q receptors that are involved in the induction of chemotaxis and chemokinesis
," Journal of Immunology, vol.