with botulinum toxin injection is an effective first step treatment in BEB.
Apart from drug treatment (Murphy et al., 2008), current commonly used treatment methods on thigh adductor muscles spasticity include adductor lengthening and obturator neurotomy (Khot et al., 2008; Qureshi et al., 2013), chemodenervation
through intramuscular injection of botulinum toxin A, and phenol or ethanol injection to nerve trunk or its muscular branches, i.e., chemical neurolysis (Cioncoloni et al., 2014; Lam et al., 2015).
(13) Botulinum toxins exerts its effects through uptake by cholinergic neurons resulting in temporary chemodenervation
and a decrease in neuromuscular transmission.
Medications in the therapy of spasticity may be administered orally, transdermally, via an intrathecal pump, and chemodenervation
Treatment options include physical therapy, static slings, nerve and muscle transfers, blepharoplasty, brow lift, and chemodenervation
with botulinum toxin.
Laryngeal EMG has become the workhorse of neurolaryngology, both for diagnosis and for localization of specific muscles for chemodenervation
. Laryngeal EMG is reviewed elsewhere.
Complications occur due to weakness (chemodenervation
) of adjacent muscle groups, immunological mechanisms and injection technique.
 The toxin weakens muscle by blocking the nerve impulse to the muscle, which is known as Chemodenervation
. When injected into a muscle, botulinum toxin effectively denervates that muscle by temporarily blocking the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction.
In headache and migraine treatment, some of the most common codes include 64405, for unilateral occipital nerve block; 64450, for unilateral block of another peripheral nerve; 64612, for unilateral facial nerve chemodenervation
; and 64615, for bilateral chemodenervation
of the facial nerve, trigeminal nerve, cervical spinal nerve, and accessory nerves, she added.
Han, "Recession-resection surgery augmented with botulinum toxin a chemodenervation
for paralytic horizontal strabismus," Korean Journal ofOphthalmology, vol.
Presently the best modality available for the initial treatment of BEB is chemodenervation
by botulinum toxin type A.36 Botulinum toxin Type A belongs to the group of seven antigenic specific neurotoxins ABC1DEF and G produced by Clostridium botulinum.
procedures; text and atlas.