chemoautotrophic


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chemoautotrophic

 [ke″mo-au″to-trof´ik]
capable of synthesizing cell constituents from carbon dioxide by means of energy derived from inorganic reactions.

che·mo·au·to·tro·phic

(kē'mō-aw-tō-trof'ik),
Pertaining to a chemoautotroph.
Synonym(s): chemolithotrophic

che·mo·au·to·tro·phic

(kē'mō-aw-tō-trō'fik)
Pertaining to a chemoautotroph.
Synonym(s): chemolithotrophic.

chemoautotrophic

or

chemotrophic

(of an organism) capable of manufacturing organic molecules from carbon dioxide and water by a process of CHEMOSYNTHESIS. For example, Thiobacillus oxidizes hydrogen sulphide to sulphur in order to produce the energy for chemosynthesis. Chemoautotrophic organisms are one form of AUTOTROPH, the other form displaying PHOTOTROPISM. Nitrate bacteria, such as Nitrobacter, and nitrite bacteria, such as Nitrosomonas, which contribute to the NITROGEN CYCLE, also grow chemoautotrophically Nitrobacter obtains the energy by oxidizing nitrite to nitrate, while Nitrosomonas oxidizes ammonia to nitrite.
References in periodicals archive ?
Discovery of chemoautotrophic symbiosis in the giant shipworm Kuphuspolythalamia (Bivalvia: Teredinidae) extends wooden-steps theory.
Chemoautotrophic microbes (bacteria and archaea) have been found in deep-ocean sediments and at hydrothermal vents, where hot water flows out through newly formed volcanic rock at mid-ocean ridges.
Chemoautotrophic activity and nitrification in the oxygen minimum zone off Peru.
Studies on the chemoautotrophic iron bacterium Ferrobacillus ferrooxidans : an improved medium and a harvesting procedure for securing high cell yields.
There is extensive bibliography concerning prokaryotes in mining environments, such as the chemoautotrophic Acidothiobacillus ferrooxidans and other acidophilic Bacteria and Archeaon microorganisms (Evangelou and Zhang, 1995; Ehrlich, 1996; Banfield et al, 2000; Benner et al, 2000; Bond and Greg, 2000; Robbins, 2000; Johnson et al.
Such a subsurface habitat could support the sort of anaerobic chemoautotrophic life that has been found on Earth.
Consequently, since we had found that chemoautotrophic nitrification was the predominant nitrifying process in these acid pasture soils (Islam et al.
Nitrification is a two-step process in which N[H.sub.4.sup.+] is first oxidized to N[O.sub.2.sup.-] by chemoautotrophic bacteria such as Nitrosomonas and the N[O.sub.2] is oxidized to N[O.sub.3.sup.-] by N[O.sub.2.sup.-]-oxidizing bacteria such as Nitrobacter.
They present different feeding modes (carnivores, herbivores, omnivores, deposit-feeders, symbiotic chemoautotrophic bacteria), this plasticity could be the reason of their success in many environments (Beesley et al.
Chemoautotrophic bacteria, such as those that live associated with the vents of the ocean ridges, are the only benthic primary producers that are not photosynthetic.
In Thiobacillus ferrooxidans, an acidophilic chemoautotrophic bacterium sensitive to mercury ions, a group of mercury-resistant strains, which volatilize mercury, has been isolated.