Unlike the chemoautotrophic
nitrifiers, which do not grow below pH 5, the heterotrophic nitrifiers are active in acid soils, particularly forest soils.
They present different feeding modes (carnivores, herbivores, omnivores, deposit-feeders, symbiotic chemoautotrophic
bacteria), this plasticity could be the reason of their success in many environments (Beesley et al.
bacteria, such as those that live associated with the vents of the ocean ridges, are the only benthic primary producers that are not photosynthetic.
In Thiobacillus ferrooxidans, an acidophilic chemoautotrophic
bacterium sensitive to mercury ions, a group of mercury-resistant strains, which volatilize mercury, has been isolated.
Desulfovibrio and other chemoautotrophic
bacteria produce sulfuric and nitric acid' which increase limestone dissolution.
However, the discovery on the ocean floors of entire communities of organisms that utilize chemoautotrophic
bacteria to extract energy from the hydrogen sulfides which are spewed out of hydrothermal vents reminds us that there are also significant exceptions.
He does, however, discuss other deposit feeding bivalves and bivalves with chemoautotrophic
Although a few cave communities depend on chemoautotrophic
production (Sarbu et al.
Here sulfide-rich effluents support dense communities of free-living bacteria, as well as tube worms and mollusks living in symbiosis with chemoautotrophic
bacteria (internal bacteria that fix organic carbon using chemical energy from reduced compounds such as sulfide).
Inorganics are also present, and some of them, such as ammonia, promote the growth of chemoautotrophic
In deep-sea hydrothermal vents and seeps, symbiotic associations between invertebrates and chemoautotrophic
bacteria are common (Cavanaugh et al.
High species richness in deep-sea chemoautotrophic
whale skeleton communities.