chemical warfare


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Related to chemical warfare: biological warfare, mustard gas

chemical warfare

the waging of war with poisonous chemicals and gases.
The use of chemicals as a weapon of mass destruction, deployed as gases; the tremendous morbidity caused by such weapons in World War I—killing or injuring roughly 1.3 million soldiers—led to their ban under the ‘Geneva Protocol’ of 1925

chemical warfare

Waging war with toxic chemical agents. Agents include nerve gases; agents that cause temporary blindness, paralysis, hallucinations, or deafness; irritants to the eyes and lungs; blistering agents, e.g., mustard gas; defoliants; and herbicides.

Patient care

Victims of a chemical exposure or attack require decontamination, ideally on site as rapidly as possible by specially equipped and trained Emergency Medical Services (EMS)/fire personnel or hospital-based health care professionals. Decontamination includes isolation of the victim, preferably outdoors or in a sealed, specially ventilated room; removal of all of the victim's clothing and jewelry; protection of any part of the victim's body that has not been exposed to toxins; repeated irrigation and flushing of exposed skin with water (a dilute wound-cleansing solution, such as Dakin’s solution, may be used on skin but not on the eyes or within penetrating wounds); additional irrigation of wounded skin with sterile solution (typically for about 10 min longer than the irrigation of intact skin); irrigation of the eyes with saline solution (about 15 min); cleansing beneath the surface of exposed fingernails or toenails; and collection and disposal of effluent and contaminated clothing. To avoid secondary injuries and exposures, trained personnel who carry out decontamination must wear chemical masks with a filtered respirator, self-contained underwater breathing apparatus (SCUBA), and splash-resistant protective clothing that covers all skin and body surfaces and is impervious to all chemicals. Following decontamination, victims require triage and treatment.

Treatments for chemical exposures include both supportive care (such as the administration of oxygen, intravenous fluids, analgesics, topical remedies, and psychosocial support) and the administration of antidotes or chemical antagonists such as physostigmine. Details of the treatment for most specific exposures may be found in references such as the National Library of Medicine’s website: www.sis.nlm.nih.gov/Tox/ChemWar.html. See: biological warfare.

chemical

1. pertaining to chemistry.
2. a substance composed of chemical elements, or obtained by chemical processes. See also toxin.

chemical adjuvant
a chemical added to another to improve its activity. For example, mineral gels added to vaccines. May also be a chemical added to feed to improve digestion, e.g. monensin in ruminants. These are more commonly referred to as additives. See also adjuvant.
agricultural chemical
chemical used in agriculture. Includes pesticides, anthelmintics, fertilizers, algaecides, herbicides, soil fumigants and the like.
chemical environment
that part of the animals' environment that is composed of chemicals. For farm livestock this includes fertilizers, defoliants, worm drenches, insect sprays, adjuvants to feed. For companion animals see household chemical (below).
household chemical
the roster of chemicals that one can expect to find in the average household. Includes insect sprays and repellents, snail bait, rodenticide, garden sprays, human medicines and the like.
chemical pneumonitis
results from aspiration of gastric acids.
chemical senses
see olfaction (2), taste.
chemical shearing
causing the fleece of sheep to be shed by the administration of a chemical substance to the sheep. Cyclophosphamide and mimosine have been used experimentally but there is no commercially available system.
chemical spoilage
occurs in preserved foods, especially canned ones. Is usually the result of interaction between the contents and an imperfect container. There may be gas produced, e.g. hydrogen swells, or discoloration of the tin.
chemical warfare
agents used include: (1) systemic poisons, e.g. hydrocyanic acid; (2) lung irritants, e.g. chlorine, phosgene; (3) lacrimators (weeping stimulators), e.g. CN, CAP, CS; (4) sternutators (sneeze stimulators); (5) vesicants, e.g. mustards, nitrogen mustards, arsenic mustards and nettle gases; (6) nerve gases, e.g. organophosphorus compounds.
References in periodicals archive ?
Defense to identify technology companies capable of developing a transportable disposal system for converting dangerous chemical warfare agents into a safe end-product, like soil, while making use of minimal consumables and creating no hazardous by-products.
The Chief of the Overseas Gas Service Section, Lieutenant Colonel Amos Fries, voiced their dissent: "We in the field," he wrote, "emphasized the fighting value of chemical warfare.
USAMRICD develops medical countermeasures to chemical warfare agents and trains medical personnel in the medical management of chemical casualties and is a recognized leader in this field.
Using personal accounts, biographies, and local historical information, he pieces together a story that focuses on the depth and clarity of what it was like to be a part of the Nation's chemical warfare effort during World War I.
The RAID-AFM can detect and identify up to 20 chemical warfare agents and toxic industrial chemicals with short response times at IDLH (Immediate Danger to Live and Health) levels.
Bulk destruction of chemical warfare agents is a challenge for the defense and global community.
Do TICs pose a dangerous weaponized threat equal to that of chemical warfare agents, or are TICs just environmental health hazards?
The ability of their technique to give immediate results makes it good for applications such as detecting biological and chemical warfare.
The CMA safely stores and destroys the nation's aging chemical weapons, effectively recovers the nation's chemical warfare materiel, and enhances national security.
Destroying chemical warfare agents in bulk is a challenge for the military and international community.
Preparations are expected to begin this month for excavation work of four filled-in trenches that were part of a World War II chemical warfare storage yard.
Frank Thibodeau, Vice President of Bruker Daltonics NBC Corporation, commented: "This announcement is a further indication as to why our RAID IMS systems are increasingly recognized as the preeminent chemical detectors in the world today, offering excellent detection performance, low false positive rates and the versatility to detect many toxic industrial chemicals or chemical warfare agents.

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