chemical warfare

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Related to chemical agent: biological agent, Chemical warfare agent
The use of chemicals as a weapon of mass destruction, deployed as gases; the tremendous morbidity caused by such weapons in World War I—killing or injuring roughly 1.3 million soldiers—led to their ban under the ‘Geneva Protocol’ of 1925
Segen's Medical Dictionary. © 2012 Farlex, Inc. All rights reserved.

chemical warfare

Waging war with toxic chemical agents. Agents include nerve gases; agents that cause temporary blindness, paralysis, hallucinations, or deafness; irritants to the eyes and lungs; blistering agents, e.g., mustard gas; defoliants; and herbicides.

Patient care

Victims of a chemical exposure or attack require decontamination, ideally on site as rapidly as possible by specially equipped and trained Emergency Medical Services (EMS)/fire personnel or hospital-based health care professionals. Decontamination includes isolation of the victim, preferably outdoors or in a sealed, specially ventilated room; removal of all of the victim's clothing and jewelry; protection of any part of the victim's body that has not been exposed to toxins; repeated irrigation and flushing of exposed skin with water (a dilute wound-cleansing solution, such as Dakin’s solution, may be used on skin but not on the eyes or within penetrating wounds); additional irrigation of wounded skin with sterile solution (typically for about 10 min longer than the irrigation of intact skin); irrigation of the eyes with saline solution (about 15 min); cleansing beneath the surface of exposed fingernails or toenails; and collection and disposal of effluent and contaminated clothing. To avoid secondary injuries and exposures, trained personnel who carry out decontamination must wear chemical masks with a filtered respirator, self-contained underwater breathing apparatus (SCUBA), and splash-resistant protective clothing that covers all skin and body surfaces and is impervious to all chemicals. Following decontamination, victims require triage and treatment.

Treatments for chemical exposures include both supportive care (such as the administration of oxygen, intravenous fluids, analgesics, topical remedies, and psychosocial support) and the administration of antidotes or chemical antagonists such as physostigmine. Details of the treatment for most specific exposures may be found in references such as the National Library of Medicine’s website: www.sis.nlm.nih.gov/Tox/ChemWar.html. See: biological warfare.

Medical Dictionary, © 2009 Farlex and Partners
References in periodicals archive ?
[] M88 Automatic Chemical Agent Detection Assembly (ACADA)--ACADA provides point detection and identification capability for chemical vapors.
Accused of releasing a lethal chemical agent against the terrorists, Russian president Vladimir Putin felt the international pressures to admit this atrocity.
The European Agency for the Evaluation of Medicinal Products (EMEA) has already developed guidelines on the use of authorized pharmaceuticals in case of deliberate release of biologic and chemical agents (available from: URL: http://www.emea.eu.int/index/indexhl.htm).
From a rusted metal box hanging on the locked door, I grab a brochure, which reads: "The Chemical Agent Disposal Facility is pleased to announce Saturday tours; neighbors should get to know each other!" The guard informs me that no visitors are allowed beyond this point.
In response to written questions about what reports he was getting at the time, and how he responded, Powell says simply that at the joint staff level there were "periodic reports" that chemical alarms had sounded, but "that there was no official evidence in those cases of chemical agent detection" One presumes, then, that there was no official response.
The next marked improvement in chemical agent detection was the M18 Chemical Agent Detection Kit, which was first produced in 1957.
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If a soldier suspects that an item's surface is contaminated with a chemical agent, that soldier can't directly touch it until it has been thoroughly decontaminated.
The operator of a chemical agent disposal facility in Oregon is being penalized $34,400 for alleged violations of hazardous waste and air quality rules last year, according to the state Department of Environmental Quality.
The chemical agent monitor/improved chemical agent monitor (CAM/ICAM) can be safely stored in temperatures from -65 to 158[degrees]F.
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Those sensor packages include the Tactical Biological Generation II Detector (TACBIO) and the Joint Chemical Agent Detector.

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