Musacchio, "Explaining the oligomerization properties of the spindle assembly checkpoint protein
Mad2," Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London: Series B, Biological Sciences, vol.
Now, though, new drugs that disable these checkpoint proteins
are showing a keen ability to awaken T cells and, in so doing, pull away cancer's veil.
cDNA cloning and gene mapping of a candidate human cell cycle checkpoint protein
. Proceedings of National Academy of Sciences, 93: 2850-2855.
Dr Gordon Lithgow, from the Buck Institute in Novato, California, who led the study, said: "We know that ageing is a huge risk factor in cancer, and although we know the role these proteins plays in preventing cancer - or encouraging it if the proteins are not working properly - we did not imagine that this checkpoint protein
would be involved in determining lifespan."
Kaufmann and colleagues found that the human Timeless protein interacted with both Cry2 (a confirmed circadian clock protein) and Chk1 kinase (a cell cycle checkpoint protein
Imprime PGG is an innate immune trigger that activates anti-cancer T cells, while Durvalumab is a human monocolonal antibody that blocks the immune checkpoint protein
, programmed death-ligand (PD-L1), and allows activated T cells to attack tumour cells.
The current study identified a so-called checkpoint protein
(CHK2) that becomes activated when oocytes are damaged by radiation.
Cell surface expression of the checkpoint protein
programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1, also named B7-H1 and CD274) is a potent mechanism of immune evasion employed by a wide variety of tumor types and is the target of several checkpoint blockade immunotherapies for cancer .
BUB3 (mitotic checkpoint protein
) was the DNA damage checkpoint protein
, which could control cell cycle and cell proliferation and also induce cell apoptosis by affecting the regulation of protein p53 .
CM-24 is directed against CEACAM1, a novel immune checkpoint protein
that is expressed on activated effector lymphocytes and a variety of cancer cells.
The collaboration provides for the development and commercialization of therapeutic antibodies against two checkpoint protein
candidates discovered by Compugen.
Recently, Dr Huang conducted a breakthrough study that pinpointed a cell-cycle checkpoint protein
which allowed individual brain tumor cells to avoid the immune system.