Immediately after fertilization, the densely cytoplasmic chalazal region of the female gametophyte is partitioned by cell walls [ILLUSTRATION FOR FIGURES 5A-F OMITTED].
Approximately three days after fertilization, nuclei within each multinucleate cell of the chalazal region fuse.
Three antipodal cells were located at the chalazal
pole and generally degenerated soon (Fig.
The antipodals, formed from the three nucleus of chalazal quartet, are situated on the periphery at the chalazal end of the ES (Fig.
The author described the occurence of ten types of tetrads (linear with chalazal or epichalazal functional megaspore, T-shaped, oblique linear, inverted T- shape, anisobilateral, triad and three different types of bisporic patterns) and supposed evolutionary lines with in the family.
In Polygonum type development of embryo sac, antipodal cells are placed on the chalazal
end of embryo sac.
The following anomalies were infrequently observed among [B.sub.III] florets: (i) pairs of MMCs developing parallel to each other (eight pistils), (ii) functionality of the micropylar rather than the chalazal
cell of dyads (five pistils), and (iii) adventitious pistil formation from anther surfaces (about 30-40% of the florets from one [B.sub.III] somaclone).
Fruit usually a pair of slender to stout, thinly to thickly woody, ventrally dehiscent follicles with dry pericarp; endocarp not forming a stone; seeds usually numerous, compressed, with coma usually on micropylar end, sometimes with a coma at the chalazal
end or at both micropylar and chalazal
ends (some Wrightieae and Malouetieae), rarely ecomose (s ome Malouetieae); endosperm thin, not ruminate.
3C), and the sexual embryo sac developed from the chalazal
Other nucellar and chalazal
structures, such as hypostase, perisperm, and chalazosperm, are regarded as being of some systematic significance in monocotyledons and are used as characters in analyses.
Dyads and triads, including binucleated functional megaspores, were also identified and resulted from the absence of cytokinesis after telophase II in both chalazal
and micropylar cells (Fig.
The active part during the development of rumination may be the endosperm (e.g., Andrographis, Acanthaceae: Mohan Ram, 1960) as well as chalazal
or integumentary tissue.