Alternatives to Pap smear test are visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA), visual inspection with Lugol's iodine (VILI), cervicography
and speculoscopy are used for screening cervical cancer in low resource settings (16).
Detail of standard procedure, advantages, and disadvantages for Pap smear, LBC, HPV-DNA, VILI/VIA, cervicography
, and colposcopy techniques can be found in .
had low sensitivity and specificity; it was considered of value for VIA quality control but not as a primary screening test.
Remote diagnosis of cervical neoplasia: 2 types of telecolposcopy compared with cervicography
. J Fam Pract 2003; 52:298-304.
Comparison of pap smear visual inspection with acetic acid human papillomavirus DNA-PCR testing and cervicography
. Int J Gynecol Obstet 2005;89:120-6.
Priority should be given to introduce screening methods for cervical cancer such as cervicography
, gynoscopy and Pap smears at different levels of health care to effectively reduce the prevalence of cervical cancer among elder women.
(6,7) Alternative screening approaches such as visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA), visual inspection with Lugol's iodine (VILI), cervicography
and speculoscopy have also been explored in the prevention of cervical cancer in resource-poor settings.
and VIA are comparable and score in between.
* Computer-based telecolposcopy and network telecolposcopy detected more cervical neoplasia than cervicography
In the third study (40) A total of 8636 randomly selected Costa Rican women were each screened with Pap, FBC, and cervicography
. All women with a suspicious physical examination for cancer or with any abnormality on any of the 3 tests were referred for colposcopy, along with a random sample of 150 women with no abnormalities.
This study compared cytology, cervicography
and the acetic acid test for cervical neoplasia.
Evaluation of the sensitivity of cervicography
in a consecutive colposcopic series.