(5) suggested that a subclinic basal ganglia lesion coupled with a lesion affecting the systems that control head and neck movements (including the vestibular system) causes cervical dystonia
. Stimulation of the nucleus of Cajal, which is closely related to vestibular nuclei, initiates rotational head movements toward the side of the stimulus (5).
To date, only BTXA and BTXB serotypes have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for clinical use including cervical dystonia
, severe primary axillary hyperhidrosis, strabismus, blepharospasm, hemifacial spasm, and glabellar wrinkles for BTXA and cervical dystonia
In our patients, cervical dystonia
developed within a few days of clebopride use.
A total of 70 patients (cervical dystonia
, n = 30; blepharospasm, n = 30; oromandibular dystonia, n = 10) and 50 controls were included in the final analysis.
Treatment of cervical dystonia
with botulinum toxin in a patient with myasthenia gravis.
We use it in small doses to treat health problems, including temporary smoothing of facial wrinkles and improving your appearance, severe underarm sweating, cervical dystonia
- a neurological disorder that causes severe neck and shoulder muscle contractions, blepharospasm - uncontrollable blinking, strabismus - misaligned eyes, chronic migraine and overactive bladder.
It is highly effective in focal dystonia like cervical dystonia
and blepharospasm hemifacial spasm.
The Canadian multicentre study of deep brain stimulation for cervical dystonia
(CD), the most common form of late-onset focal dystonia, is characterized by sustained or intermittent neck muscle contractions causing abnormal head movements and postures [2, 3].
(CD) is a movement disorder, characterized by abnormal head, neck, and shoulder posture due to repetitive clonic and tonic involuntary contractions in muscles of the neck and shoulder region (1,2).
They discuss the pretherapeutic history of botulinum neurotoxin, the history of its clinical development, its pharmacology and immunological properties, and treatments for cervical dystonia
, blepharospasm, oromandibular dystonia, laryngeal muscle hyperactivity syndromes, otorhinolaryngological conditions, hemifacial spasm, spasticity, spastic infantile cerebral palsy, tic disorders, essential hand and head tremor, stiff-person syndrome, ophthalmological applications, cosmetic uses, hyperhidrosis, ischemic digits, neuropathic pain, headaches, musculoskeletal pain and arthritis, plantar fasciitis, low-back pain, piriformis syndrome, the gastrointestinal tract, and urological disorders.