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the escape of blood from a ruptured vessel; it can be either external or internal. Blood from an artery is bright red in color and comes in spurts; that from a vein is dark red and comes in a steady flow. Aside from the obvious flow of blood from a wound or body orifice, massive hemorrhage can be detected by other signs, such as restlessness, cold and clammy skin, thirst, increased and thready pulse, rapid and shallow respirations, and a drop in blood pressure. If the hemorrhage continues unchecked, the patient may complain of visual disturbances, ringing in the ears, or extreme weakness.
capillary hemorrhage oozing of blood from minute vessels.
cerebral hemorrhage a hemorrhage into the cerebrum; one of the three main causes of cerebral vascular accident (stroke syndrome).
concealed hemorrhage internal hemorrhage.
internal hemorrhage that in which the extravasated blood remains within the body.
intracranial hemorrhage bleeding within the cranium, which may be extradural, subdural, subarachnoid, or cerebral.
petechial hemorrhage subcutaneous hemorrhage occurring in minute spots.
postpartum hemorrhage that which follows soon after labor.
primary hemorrhage that which soon follows an injury.
secondary hemorrhage that which follows an injury after a considerable lapse of time.
hemorrhage into the substance of the cerebrum, usually in the region of the internal capsule by the rupture of the lenticulostriate artery.
Etymology: L, cerebrum + Gk, haima, blood, rhegnynei, to burst forth
a hemorrhage from a blood vessel in the brain. Three criteria used to classify cerebral hemorrhages are location (subarachnoid, extradural, subdural), kind of vessel involved (arterial, venous, capillary), and origin (traumatic, degenerative). Each kind of cerebral hemorrhage has distinctive clinical characteristics. Most cerebral hemorrhages occur in the region of the basal ganglia and are caused by the rupture of a sclerotic artery as a result of hypertension. Other causes of rupture include congenital aneurysm, cerebrovascular thrombosis, and head trauma.
observations Bleeding may lead to displacement or destruction of brain tissue. Extensive hemorrhage is usually fatal. Depending on the extent and the location of the damaged tissue, residual effects may include aphasia, diminished mental function, hemiplegia, or disturbance of the function of a special sense.
interventions A computed tomography scan may be performed to locate the lesion and to differentiate the hemorrhage from an embolus or thrombus, or cerebral angiography may be used for these purposes. Lumbar puncture may be performed to reveal blood in the spinal fluid if subarachnoid bleeding is suspected, but computed tomography must be performed first because of the risk of brain herniation if high intracranial pressure is present. Surgery is sometimes necessary to stop the bleeding and to prevent death from greatly increased intracranial pressure, although it has not been shown to improve long-term outcome. Treatment is usually supportive.
intracerebral haemorrhageA generic term for haemorrhage within the cerebral parenchyma which, when superficial, is most commonly caused by contusions and, if deep, more often linked to hypertension and occurs in the putamen, thalamus, internal capsule, cerebellum or pons.
cerebral hemorrhageBrain bleed Neurology Abrupt bleeding into cerebral tissue, which may be 2º to HTN, ASHD malformations or trauma. See Arteriovenous malformation, Berry aneurysm, Cerebrovascular accident, Stroke, Subdural hematoma.
ce·re·bral hem·or·rhage(ser'ĕ-brăl hem'ŏr-ăj)
Hemorrhage into the substance of the cerebrum, usually in the region of the internal capsule by the rupture of the lenticulostriate artery.
ce·re·bral hem·or·rhage(ser'ĕ-brăl hem'ŏr-ăj)
Hemorrhage into substance of cerebrum.
the escape of blood from a ruptured vessel. Hemorrhage can be external, internal, or into the skin or other tissues. Blood from an artery is bright red in color and comes in spurts; that from a vein is dark red and comes in a steady flow.
Hemorrhages in particular anatomical sites may be found under their specific anatomical headings.
alimentary tract hemorrhage
includes hematochezia, melena.
see paraneoplastic hemorrhage (below).
oozing of blood from minute vessels.
see brain hemorrhage.
exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage
see exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage.
that due to abnormalities in the fibrinolytic system and not dependent on hypofibrinogenemia.
that which occurs into cavities, e.g. hemoperitoneum, or into tissues, e.g. vulvar hematoma in mares. The only evidence of illness may be extreme pallor and weakness. There may be moderate dyspnea and other signs related to the distention of individual organs.
bleeding within the cranium, which may be extradural, subdural, subarachnoid or cerebral.
uncommon syndrome caused by leakage of blood into the potential space between the two serosal layers of the mesentery. An extensive hemorrhage causes severe abdominal pain, shock, some blood-staining of peritoneal fluid and leakage of blood into the intestinal lumen.
a variety of hemostatic disorders develop in association with neoplasia in animals and may result in disseminated intravascular coagulation and hemorrhage. Called also cancer-associated hemorrhage.
subcutaneous hemorrhage occurring in minute spots.
that which follows soon after parturition.
that which soon follows an injury.
that which follows an injury after a considerable lapse of time.
causes a soft, painless fluctuating swelling capable of being moved easily. Paracentesis reveals the presence of whole blood.