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Serotonin may change the reactions of motion-sensitive neurons in the vestibular nuclei, inferior olive, and midline cerebellar nuclei [15, 16].
They form multiple synapses with granule cells and send inhibitory projections to deep cerebellar nuclei.
For quantification, cells within the white matter of cerebellum or corpus callosum were counted, excluding cerebellar nuclei in the cerebellum.
DWM is characterized by hypoplasia or agenesis of the cerebellar vermis, involving the cortex and deep cerebellar nuclei, enlargement of the fourth ventricle in continuity with a posterior fossa cyst.
23) reported that vascular topography and the involvement of deep cerebellar nuclei were the chief factors determining the cognitive profile.
15) The same anatomical and functional divergence covers the deep cerebellar nuclei.
Like the motor-related nuclei of mammals, VIAr receives inputs from the GABAergic neurons of the substantia nigra pars reticulata and the deep cerebellar nuclei, and it projects to motor-related areas of the Wulst.
19,20) Neurons projecting from the inferior olivary nucleus to the cerebellar nuclei and cerebellar cortex are also necessary for vestibular compensation.
38,39) Of these, precursors of the granule cells and cerebellar nuclei cells, after leaving the upper rhombic lip, migrate tangentially through a subpial stream, (9,38-40) while unipolar brush cells appear to migrate through the white matter (41) before settling in the inner granule cell layer of the cerebellar cortex (Fig.
sup][29],[30],[31] Postmortem histopathological study in patients with SCA3 has revealed considerable neuronal loss at the cerebellar Purkinje cell layer and the four deep cerebellar nuclei.
Neurons were also found in the pretectum, midbrain, and cerebellar nuclei that are, in all probability, correlated primarily with vertical eye movements and gaze (not illustrated).
Synaptic plasticity has also been reported in mossy fiber-granule cell synapses in the granular layer and in the cerebellar nuclei.