Many isolates of Acinetobacter spp have developed resistance to antibiotics, including until now successful, aminopenicillins, ureidopenicillin, cefamandole and cephalothin, cephamycin
, cefoxitin, most of the aminoglycosides, chloramphenicol, tetracycline, and the more recent antibiotics, such as cefotaxime, ceftazidime, imipenem, tobramycin, amikacin, and fluoroquinolones .
ESBLs are plasmid-mediated [beta]-lactamases that are capable of efficiently hydrolyzing penicillin, narrow and broad-spectrum cephalosporins and monobactams (aztreonam), but they do not hydrolyse cephamycin
or carbapenems (imipenem, meropenem).
beta]-Lactam antibiotics are frequently used for Agrobacterium eradication in plant tissues, they are penicillin, cephalosporin, cephamycin
, oxacephem, monobactam and carbapenem, and are currently being developed to improve and enlarge antibacterial activity (Demain and Elander, 1999).
CLSI mandates reporting methieillin-/oxacillin-resistant staphylococci resistant to all beta-lactam drugs--penicillins, cephalosporins, cephamycin
, and beta-lactam/beta-lactam inhibitors and carbapenems.
Other successful preventive infection-control measures include strict hand washing and restricted use of cephalosporin and cephamycin
antibiotics that promote resistance in Acinetobacter .
therapy leads to emergence of plasmid mediated Amp C resistance.
In addition, altered expression of outer membrane proteins constituting porins can also contribute to cephamycin
Detection of AmpC was done Cephamycin
Hodge test by using Cefoxitin disc (30 [micro]g) with ATCC Strains of Escherichia coli 25922.
Even though the cephamycin
antibiotics--cefotetan, cefmetazole, and cefoxitin--may appear to test susceptible, their usefulness in treating serious infections with ES[beta]L producers is unclear.
In addition, mutation or altered expression of outer membrane proteins constituting porins can also contribute to cephamycin
Cefoxitin, a cephamycin
is a potent inducer of the mecA regulatory system.
Enterobacteriaceae with plasmid-encoded class C cephalosporinases are typically resistant to cephamycins
, extended-spectrum cephalosporins, and monobactams (19).