(A) Infection by female specimen on the external surface: arrow showing the specimen; (B) Female, Habitus: dorsal view; (C) Female, detail of genital complex and abdomen: ventral view; (D) Male, Habitus: dorsal view; (E) Male, anterior part of Cephalothoracic
shield: arrow showing the absence of sternal furca in ventral view.
Discrimination of the different stimuli is mediated by peripheral chemoreceptors grouped within a varied array of cuticular sensory organs called sensilla, which are located mainly on the cephalothoracic
appendages including antennae, maxillipeds (mouthparts), antennules, and pereiopods (walking legs) (Schmidt and Mellon, 2011; Thiel and Breithaupt, 2011).
shield slightly longer than wide [1.73 (1.65-1.83) x 1.62 (1.58-1.65) mm], ornamented as in female.
For macroscopic studies, 10 animals had their cephalothoracic
cavity opened and the hepatopancreas dissected and analyzed.
Since these values are hard to determine experimentally, we used the results from a number of different approaches: 1) a basic infiltration test (using acetone) for detecting the presence of empty (air-filled) layers (see Parker 2000); 2) previous studies, which have reported spider reflectors from the abdominal and cephalothoracic
regions as being comprised of air and chitin layers (Parker & Hegedus 2003; Land et al.
In pseudoscorpions, adult size of these fully sclerotized cephalothoracic
and pedipalpal traits is fixed at the final nymphal molt (Chamberlin 1931; Zeh 1987b).
Specimens were measured for cephalothoracic
shield length (CSL = from the tip of the rostrum to the groove at the posterior edge) using a caliper (to the nearest 0.1 mm) under a stereoscopic microscope.
The ovarian maturation stage was scored as stage 1 (no vitellogenic oocytes visible), stage 2 (the developed vitellogenic oocytes were observed in less than half of the cephalothoracic
space available for oocytes), stage 3 (more than half of the space filled), and stage 4 (space available completely filled).
and abdominal segment sutures visible.
Male (holotype): Prosoma yellowish with well marked cephalothoracic
junction and fovea.
The following somatic parts of each crab were measured: maximum carapace width (CW; was always measured behind the third cephalothoracic
spine), abdomen width for females (AW; obtained from the 5 th to 6th abdominal somite) and gonopod length for males (GL) to the nearest 0.1 mm using a Vernier caliper.
Developmental plateaus, during which neither the growth of the eye nor the cephalothoracic
segment is evident, have been documented both in crabs (Stevens and Swiney, 2007; Stevens et al., 2008) and lobsters (Helluy and Beltz, 1991).